Research is a cornerstone of education at Dominican University of California. Posters in this collection showcase student research presented at conferences.
Past research has indicated that immigrant college students experience acculturative shock and stress, arising from acculturative adjusting (Barlow, 2002; Cohen & Wills, 1985; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). This study explored the potential relationships between acculturative stress, perceived social support, and self-concealment amongst immigrant college students. Further, the study examined whether social support is related to lower acculturative stress for students. It was hypothesized that strong social support would be negatively related to acculturative stress, and that self-concealment would be positively related to acculturative stress.
Results indicate that there was a significant positive relationship between self-concealment and acculturative stress in this sample, indicating that participants who utilized self-concealment also experienced higher levels of acculturative stress. On the other hand, no relationship was found between perceived social support and acculturative stress. Findings indicate that immigrant students with a high level of self-concealment also experience difficulty acculturating to the culture in which they currently live. This has implications for immigration students’ ability to engage fully in school and for educational policy acculturative stress.
Implementing Multifactorial Education Modules with Older Adults: Individualized and Interactive Fall Prevention Education
Salvador Chavez, Jocelle Flores, and Rachelle Yambao
Falls are a significant concern for community-dwelling older adults (OAs), with one in four OAs reporting a fall every year. Occupational therapy students collaborated with first responders of the Novato Fire District to identify gaps in fall prevention community outreach programs and found that many interventions lack an interactive or individualized approach. Based on the gap analysis and current literature, seven education modules were developed to address key risk factors including home modifications, polypharmacy, fear of falling, and balance exercises. Thirty community-dwelling OAs participated in the education modules and were implemented at two senior community sites in Marin County. Participants were screened via Functional Reach Test (FRT) and completed a survey to determine their personal risk factors for falling, which guided their personalized fall prevention education. Of the participants, 90% rated their experience with the education modules as “very good” or “excellent,” and a majority rated the balance exercises as most important. The interactive 1:1 education modules are an effective and innovative method for fall prevention education and highlight the importance of client-centered treatment.
Carrie Payne and Lauren Kufer
This critically appraised topic explores the functional task performance of adults with low vision utilizing tactile vision substitution systems, specifically tongue display units (TDUs). TDUs are a novel assistive device that functions to provide artificial vision to those with low vision. TDUs pixelate images captured on a camera the person wears and the images are translated via electronic stimulation on the tongue to paint a picture. Two studies that measured functional task performance utilizing a TDU with adults with low vision were explored. Examples of functional tasks measured include word recognition, object recognition, and orientation and mobility tasks. The studies concluded that with skilled training, the TDU may significantly improve functional task performance in tasks previously impossible for the participants. Use of technology such as a TDU can improve functional task performance to enhance overall quality of life for adults with low vision of light perception or less. The results indicate the need for skilled training by professionals such as occupational therapists to best utilize a TDU.
Isabella Jao, Chloe McFadin, Nica Nuguid, Dan Recinto, and Kaitlin Van Ryn
Should schools in the United States require children between the ages of six months to 17 years to have flu vaccination shots? Influenza is a serious disease that can lead to hospitalization and sometimes even death. According to the Center of Disease Control (CDC), every flu season varies, and an influenza infection can affect people differently. Millions of people get the flu every year, hundreds of thousands of people are hospitalized, and thousands or tens of thousands of people die from flu-related causes every year. Everyone is at risk for influenza, but the highest risk lies within children who are still developing their immune systems. However, with vaccines, this risk is easily preventable and can decrease a person’s chances of acquiring the infection. As such, the CDC recommends that every person six months and older should be vaccinated annually. This is even more important for children because they attend schools where they have maximum exposure to various strains of influenza six to ten hours daily. They can easily spread and contract the disease in their school environment, specifically from children that are not vaccinated. This leads to the hypothesis that children six months to 17 years should be required to receive influenza vaccinations.
Kaylee E. Gothelf, Ty Duong, Ana Baldinger, and Theresa Chase
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of semi-structured interviews as an outcome measure in a clinical trial for children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) ages 2-6. This qualitative approach was used to analyze twenty-five interviews of parents with children in a double-blind medication trial - sertraline or placebo. The aim was to assess occupational improvements in their child that may not have been detected with the use quantitative outcome measures alone. Results showed greater improvements in the sertraline group in areas of behavior, social participation, sensory-related behaviors, receptive language, education, family impact and therapeutic strategies. Our findings support the use of semi-structured interviews as an additional outcome measure in a medication trial to account for the voice and context of family experiences through an occupation centered lens.
May Anne Gamueda, Janie Grant, America Ortega, and Jordan Song
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a mobile health application (mHealth app) will result in a decrease in fatigue and an increase in adherence to energy conservation techniques for adults with multiple sclerosis (MS).
METHOD: Using a quantitative, exploratory, pretest and post-test design, we examined the use of the mHealth app, Pace My Day (PMD), by seven participants during one chosen task while incorporating energy conservation strategies for two weeks. Main outcome measures included Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM).
RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the MFIS scores indicating a decrease in fatigue over the two-week period t(6)=5.75, p=0.001.
CONCLUSION: Use of mHealth apps and energy conservation strategies were found to significantly reduce levels of fatigue and increase self-perceived performance and satisfaction of task execution.
Hannah Tashjian, Phoebe Taasan, and Donielle Hair
This study examines a structured protocol to measure the effects of daily individualized use of Therapeutic Listening - Quickshifts (TL-Q) used to improve occupational performance in children with learning and developmental disabilities. The study identifies a standardized practice-based evidence procedure to measure the outcomes of implementing TL-Q within traditional OT practice. OTs worldwide are using sound-based therapies (SBTs) despite limited supporting evidence available regarding the productivity of these interventions. Even fewer studies have been published on the effects of Therapeutic Listening (TL), a novel intervention shown to increase personal and interpersonal skills including sensory processing skills, visual motor integration, and emotional regulation (Frick & Hacker, 2001). TL-Q is used to modify distressing effects of sensory dysregulation and learning disabilities through an individualized listening program of modified musical patterns that the child listens to through headphones for a set amount of time each day. The music program is implemented at home for a more intensive intervention designed to stimulate neuroplasticity across hemispheres eliciting behavioral changes and improved neurological responses (Wink, McKeown, & Casey, 2017).
Michelle Chan, Kelsie Colombini, Kristen M. Henderson, and Courtney Malachowski
In recent years, the number of inpatient cardiovascular surgeries has significantly increased in hospitals around America. Occupational therapists in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Mills-Peninsula Medical Center (Burlingame, California) currently lack a standard protocol for addressing physical, cognitive, and psychosocial factors in patients post cardiac surgery. Furthermore, interventions are frequently guided by professional experience and clinical reasoning instead of current evidence. The American Occupational Therapy Association’s Centennial Vision encourages occupational therapists to pursue science-driven practices and provide evidence-based interventions. In response to this vision, an extensive review of current literature was conducted and applied to develop an evidence-based clinical pathway for the occupational therapists at Mills-Peninsula Medical Center. The proposed clinical pathway includes intervention guidelines for physical recovery, early detection of cognitive impairment, and psychosocial health for patients post cardiac surgery recovering in the ICU. The clinical pathway would establish a standard of care and facilitate patients’ return to their highest level of function during post-cardiac surgery rehabilitation.
Michelle Beckwith, Brina Nguyen, Jennifer Sik, Kenneth Yu, and Laura Greiss Hess
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual and developmental disability, and a known genetic cause of autism. Individuals with FXS present with deficits in cognition, social skills, behavior, language and sensory processing skills; all of which are commonly assessed through standardized and norm-referenced assessments. However, these outcome measures are sometimes not sensitive to contextually based changes in daily life. Further, there is limited research employing qualitative methods in the FXS literature. The purpose of this research was to examine family perspectives collected via semi-structured interviews as part of a randomized controlled medication trial of sertraline (Zoloft®) on children two to six years old diagnosed with FXS. The constant comparison method was used to analyze differences in family expressions of their child’s improvements over the course of the 6-month clinical trial. Twelve interviews were analyzed, six-treatment, six-placebo, and all coding was done blind to group assignment. Results indicated greater improvements in the treatment group when compared to the placebo group in: anxiety, receptive / expressive communication, maladaptive behaviors and some sensory issues. These preliminary findings warrant a need for further research with a larger sample.
Jeffrey Kou, Yvonne Lam, Patricia Lyons, and Susan Nguyen
Low vision is an age-related condition that affects many older adults, and may create challenges in everyday activities in older adults. Guide dogs have been shown to be an effective assistive device that can help older adults within their community. Despite vast research on dog companionship, there is limited research on the facilitators and barriers of owning a guide dog among older adults with low vision. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study is to explore the facilitators and barriers of owning a guide dog as experienced by older adults with low vision participating in Guide Dogs for the Blind (GDB) organization. Seven first time guide dog owners, ages 55 and older, were interviewed using semi-structured questions. Through constant comparison methods, five major themes emerged: changes in habits and routines, being a dog guide owner, increase in community integration, human-dog guide bonding, and dog guide enhances autonomy. Study results provide implications for occupational therapists (OT) of how guide dogs affect the daily living patterns of older adults. Additionally, study results provide insight for GDB and OTs into improving support and training processes.
Sarah L. Yoder, Jason Ichimaru, Emily Lu, and Nghi Tran
As the number of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entering adulthood grows, it is crucial to identify interventions that can help this population acquire adaptive behaviors necessary for independent living and employment. This study aimed to identify how Autisty Studio’s project-based therapy impacts this population’s engagement in adaptive behaviors.The study utilized the Brief Adaptive Behavior Scale (BABS), a quantitative assessment informed by the BRIEF-2 and the Vineland-II, to measure improvements in adaptive behaviors in 11 participants at Autistry Studios. Specifically, the BABS measured frequency (Frq), highest level of assistance (LoAHigh) required, and lowest level of assistance (LoALow) required to engage in adaptive behaviors over the course of nine sessions. Domains of Frq, LoAHigh and LoALow scores included executive functioning (EF), socialization (SOC), and self-regulation (SR). Analysis using a Repeated Measures ANOVAs and paired-sample T-test found significant differences and trends toward significance of the LoAHigh and LoALow scores in the domains of EF and SOC , indicating that Autistry’s pre-vocational, project-based therapy program is effective in improving adaptive behavior skills in adults with ASD, as measured by the BABS.
Parent culturally incompatibility was evaluated for its possible negative impact on a bicultural offspring’s cultural identity development. The 43 self-identified bicultural participants, aged from 18 to 67 years, provided family cultural histories, and completed the Parental Cultural Conflict Scale (PCCS) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). The hypothesized relationship between high PCCS levels and low MEIM levels was not supported by the data; however, the range of responses on the PCCS was very limited with a complete absence of any very low or very high conflict scores. It was concluded that parents’ cultural incompatibility does not have the level of negative impact on their offspring’s cultural identity development as originally anticipated, but due to the limited range of PCCS values, the hypothesis cannot be completely rejected. Results also demonstrated that there was also no significant difference found in the mean MEIM scores for the bicultural study sample and published norms for various monocultural groups, suggesting that bicultural children may find their path to self-identification that is neither enhanced nor impaired by having two parents of different cultures.
Pilot Study: Assistive Technology as a Vocational Support for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Erin Chaffee, Christina Ho, and Kevin Ng
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of video-based instruction (VBI) to support completion of vocational tasks. A mixed-method approach was utilized to explore the use of VBI on a personal digital assistant with adults with autism spectrum disorder. Using two assembling cooking tasks, researchers investigated the level of independence with task completion through written instruction versus VBI. The results indicated a small non-significant increase in the level of independence with task completion during the intervention task independent of intelligence quotient (IQ) levels. Participant’s feedback of VBI was also noted as positive to help learn other tasks. This study presents evidence for the use of assistive technology to support task completion in the area of vocation.
Jessica McClain, Caroline Lee, and Katelyn Gullatt
We sought to investigate whether three protective factors, (physical health, social support, and self-efficacy) predict resilience in Marin County older adults to promote successful aging in place. Fifty-eight Marin County participants aged 62 years and older participated in an exploratory cross-sectional quantitative study. Recruited from senior community programs and personal contacts, participants completed four self-report questionnaires. Descriptive and multivariate analyses using SPSS were conducted to investigate the relationship between the key variables. Of the three protective factors, self-efficacy is the most important predictor of resilience. Physical health and social support are important predictors of self-efficacy. In conclusion, three protective factors influence resilience, especially self-efficacy, and should be incorporated into occupational therapy interventions to build resilience in older adults.
It was suggested that individuals who experience a stressful childhood may have learned from these experiences and developed a greater ability to cope with stress as adults; this ability is independent of general self-esteem. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Childhood Traumatic Events Scale, the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale and a Stressful Events Questionnaire were completed by 64 participants. Comparing those who had traumatic childhood experiences with those who had not, the results showed no significant group differences for the Coping Scores. Those with traumatic childhoods had significantly lower self-esteem, and had experienced higher (but not significantly different) levels of stress during past week and also in general during past three months. It was concluded that childhood traumatic experiences have little or no observable influence on how adults cope with or respond to stressful events.
The development of an individual’s beliefs about God is significantly influenced by teachings of parents. However, not all children have the exact same beliefs as their parents. The present study will examine what may be the characteristics of individual who have similar or differing beliefs than those to which they were exposed as a child.
Although not identical to a “belief in God”, much of the past research evaluating belief systems has focused primarily of “religiosity”. Caldwell-Harris (2012) noted that openness to experience was the personality characteristic that differed most between the religious and non-religious respondents. Even controlling for education, gender, marriage, and child rearing openness remained, the strongest predictor of both lower religious belief and membership. In a study by Luke and Kim (2011) compared religious and views on strength of beliefs and found that even people who are not religious can hold very strong views and stick to these opinions avidly.
While several have studied relationship of personality and relition, few have evaluated the origins of those ideas, i.e., how beliefs may have changed since childhood. Arnett, Jensen (2002) studied religious socialization and found that beliefs in emerging adulthood show an increase in a skeptical view of religious institutions.
The adult’s beliefs about God, therefore, would seem to be a combination of the set of ideas taught by the parent and the personality characteristic of the adult child which have allowed the individual to retain or migrate away from those teaching. It is hypothesized that adults who score high in Openness are more likely to have a different set of beliefs than those which where taught to them as a child.
Methodology includes online data collection of demographics, measures parents and children’s beliefs, and the Big Five personality inventory. Results will be available in April 2017.
Twice exceptionality, or 2e, is the recently-coined term for the intersection of learning disabilities (LDs) and giftedness in an individual. Typically, these learning disabilities encompass ADHD, ASD, and/or specific learning disorders such as dyslexia. Because giftedness may obscure or compensate for a student’s academic struggles, and because institutional fixation on disability may overshadow intelligence, twice exceptionality is often missed by teachers and other authority figures in a child’s life. Given the ongoing difficulties of screening for twice exceptionality, it is likely that many 2e students have gone unidentified throughout most of their academic careers, without receiving the accommodations that would most benefit their studies. Furthermore, 2e adults whose schooling predated widespread awareness of twice exceptionality are more likely to have been diagnosed later in life.
The twin prongs of identification and intervention for 2e youth make up the bulk of studies in the field. Today’s 2e youth are better-identified, better-studied, and better-supported than any previous generation, but 2e adults remain an understudied population. In addition to the difficulties and contradictions inherent in twice exceptionality, late identification and lack of support are likely to have negatively impacted twice exceptional adults, both in and out of the classroom.
The present study will examine the ability of 2e adults to effectively cope with stressors in their lives, as well as their current level of life satisfaction. Approximately fifty or more 2e adults will be recruited through email and social media, and via the disability department of a small liberal arts university. Participants will be asked about their diagnostic histories and their experiences with higher education, and will then complete the Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S., 1985) and Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (Chesney, M.A., Neilands, T.B., Chambers, D.B., Taylor, J.M., & Folkman, S., 2006). Data will be collected and analyzed in March and April 2017.
We hypothesize that there will be a relationship between the age of identification as twice exceptional and adult quality of life, operationalized by Satisfaction with Life and Coping Self-Efficacy. Additionally, we will explore the relationships between specific diagnoses and these variables, as well as factors of race and gender. This study will provide information on an underserved and understudied group, and we hope it will provide a deeper understanding of the needs and strengths of this population.
Sarah Button, Emily Minor, and Kristen Christensen
Objective: Sensory processing issues can have a large negative impact on the ability to participate in daily occupations such as ADLs, access to work, school and leisure environments, and social interactions (Dunn, 2001). The evidence documenting sensory processing issues in adults is sparse. Physiological information can be used as objective evidence to support the claim that those with over-responsivity to sensations are experiencing their environment differently than the typical population. Understanding more about sensory processing in adults may lead to increased recognition of the problem and more opportunities for intervention to increase occupational participation. The purpose of this quantitative study compared the physiological responses to sensation in people who self-report as high in sensory sensitivity compared to people who self-report as low in sensory sensitivity.
Method: Using a quasi-experimental design, physiological responses to sensation in typical adults was measured. The use of the Sensory Profile assessment as a behavioral self-reported measure was used as a pretest and the Sensory Challenge Protocol was used as our physiological outcome measure to quantify participants’ physiological responses to sensation.
Results: No significant differences were shown between experimental and control groups in EDR responses to stimuli. Based on the sensory profile, participants’ in the experimental group who identified as sensory sensitive had higher EDR responses to more the intense sensations, such as mower (1.3), feather (1.8), and camphor (1.7). There is a significant correlation between low registration and sensory sensitive (.678), sensory avoidant (.847) and sensory defensive (.817) for the experimental group’s self-reported scores on the Sensory Profile supporting the idea that people who have sensory sensitivities may also suppress responses to sensation.
Conclusion: There are differential, meaningful patterns observed in how people with sensory sensitivities are responding to sensations. There is high variability in individuals’ personal understanding of their own sensory sensitivities and what sensory stimuli they are responding to. Therefore, it is important to know and understand what certain people in the general population do because overtime it can lead to maladaptive behaviors in daily functioning.
Savannah Hancock, Jacqueline Bloom, Charlotte Sally, and Rhianna Wallace
College students in particular have chronically restricted sleep patterns and experience more daytime sleepiness, and physical and mental health issues than their same-aged peers who are not students. Sleep is an emerging area of research and intervention for occupational therapists. The purpose of this study was to identify and investigate how college student’s beliefs about sleep affect their quality of sleep. This study asked: how do beliefs and attitudes about sleep affect sleep quality and participation in valued occupations in college students? Four college students were interviewed regarding their sleep beliefs and attitudes. They also completed a two-week sleep diary to determine their general sleep beliefs and attitudes and daily behavior. The interviews were coded for themes and four emerging themes were identified: a) beliefs about sleep patterns related to temporal structure of sleep, b) the impact of stress on sleep, c) occupational performance in terms of performance in the occupation of sleep and performance in all other occupations (daytime performance), and d) conflicting beliefs about sleep. Sleep diary data revealed that participants’ idealized sleep beliefs are not consistent with actual behavior. From these themes researchers concluded that college students do not have well defined beliefs and attitudes about sleep or consistent, routine sleep schedules, leading to fair sleep quality and performance of daily occupations.
George Washington Brownridge III, Sylvanna Islas, Angelina Miller, and Warren Hoeffler
Bone constantly cycles through a dynamic process of breakdown and remodeling. Osteoblasts are the specialized mesenchymal stem cells that have a major role in bone formation and the remodeling process whereas their counterpart osteoclasts, handle bone resorption. Embryonic stem cells can be partially differentiated into Progenitor cells, and we worked with #18, a candidate for being an osteoprogenitor that has the potential to respond to morphogenic activators. In the case of bone remodeling, TGF-β 2, BMP-2 and an abundance of CA++ have been shown to be potential activators of differentiation into osteoblasts. Eight different trials were conducted with the cells using different combinations of the three morphogenic activators. After inducing the cells with the activators, we performed Immunohistochemistry (IHC) to analyze the expression of osteocalcin, which is the enzyme that binds calcium to mineralize bone. The cells with varying activator combinations showed different physiology with a variance in the cell shape, structure, and spacing. The greatest results were from the combination of TGF-β 2 and BMP-2, which is consistent with #18 operating as an osteoprogenitor. A 3D construct model of #18 seemed to have a similar structure to that of an osteon, possibly indicating the formation of bone. We took slices of the model and performed an IHC staining for Osteocalcin, Prolyl Hydroxylase (5B5), and Collagen I. We saw a strong positive signal for Col I and 5B5, and a slight positive signal for Osteocalcin. This information confirmed that #18 is an osteoprogenitor and is able to assemble bone.
Previous research has demonstrated that natural views and access to plants appear to have significant beneficial effects on individuals (Relf, 1992). Studies of green views out of a classroom window showed significant reductions in students’ mental fatigue (Li & Sullivan, 2016), and studies of indoor plants in hospital settings showed stress reduction and increased healing rates in patients (Ulrich, 1984). Indoor plants in the workplace demonstrated improved employee performance (Kweon, Ulrich, Walker, & Tassinary, 2008). However, there have been few studies examining the impact indoor plants might have in a classroom setting. This study used an experimental design to measure the impact of indoor plants on participants’ stress levels, mental fatigue, and test performance. Forty-eight students and non-students recruited from a small liberal arts college in Marin County were given a timed 12-question math test. The test environment for the experimental group included green, leafy, indoor plants, whereas the test environment for the control group was devoid of plants. The participants’ level of immediate post-test stress and mental fatigue was self-measured using 12 questions from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983) and the Profile of Mood States (Grove & Prapavessis, 1993). Results of the current study indicated that, relative to those in the control group, participants exposed to indoor plants reported similar levels of stress and fatigue, and showed no significant difference in test performance. A correlation was found between participants’ levels of stress, tension, and fatigue. The current study was unique in its design, and further research is needed in a classroom environment to fully demonstrate the benefits of indoor plants on stress, fatigue, and test performance of students.
Michelle K. LeMieux
Staffing secondary schools has become difficult in the past 10 years in conjunction with a changing and challenging economy for Millennials. Secondary school leaders are having problems finding, employing, and retaining content specialists each school year due to the lack of trained teachers to fill positions left by large numbers of retirees. The problem is there is a need for content specialists in secondary schools and only a limited number of new teachers, which is insufficient in replacing retirees, leaving educational leaders scrambling to fill positions each year. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that are deterring Millennials in their first few years of teaching from remaining in their positions as educators and how those differ from veteran teachers who have taught for 10 or more years. A review of the literature revealed that a changing economy, coming into adulthood during a recession, lack of financial incentive, and lack of support are major deterrents for many teachers. This is a qualitative study that uses responses to surveys to gather information to explain the challenges new teachers face and the causes of the current teacher shortage.
Avery Wilson, Mios Buccat, Amanda Grace Irao, Morgan Mousley, and Michael Yra Munchua
Therapeutic Listening® is an intervention increasingly used by occupational therapists despite the lack of supporting evidence in current literature. Therapeutic Listening® is a sound-based treatment developed by Sheila Frick, OTR/L, rooted in sensory integration. The purpose of this continuation study was to analyze the quality of bilateral movement in typically developing children after a Therapeutic Listening® session using a more sensitive, qualitative measure. This study used a randomized control pretest-posttest experimental design to analyze posture, smooth and continuous movement, effort, precision, and arm/leg movements. Specific items were further analyzed after eliminating those with a strong ceiling effect and focusing on items that approached significance in the previous study. Results showed the Quickshift series to have a moderately significant effect on qualitative movements during bilateral tasks by improving smoothness and rhythmicity. Overall, when compared to the white noise group the intervention group showed a greater improvement in bilateral coordination. Limitations of this study include a low statistical power, and a high ceiling effect. However, despite these limitations the Quickshift series shows promise as an intervention to improve bilateral coordination as this study, together with the standardized tests from the previous study show a trending effect of Therapeutic Listening® on bilateral coordination.
Bryant Luong, Ann Malloy, and Shannon Preto
Few empirical studies have been conducted to provide evidence for the effectiveness of Therapeutic Listening - Quickshifts (TL-Q). Anecdotally, TL-Q has produced consistent positive results for therapists and clients as a pediatric intervention. Therefore, it is imperative to research TL-Q’s efficacy, which may lead to its broader implementation. In this study, the researchers examined the effectiveness of TL-Q intervention for children with sensory processing difficulties to improve participation and function in 1) school performance, (2) self-regulation and arousal, (3) activities of daily living (ADLs), (4) social/emotional skills, and (5) sensorimotor skills. Over the course of an 8 week prospective study, the researchers conducted a pre-test, post-test case study. During the intervention period, TL-Q expert therapists adjusted the specific musical track depending on the needs of the specific child. Results showed an overall positive increase in quantitative scores and a qualitative feedback. Most notably, in the areas of social emotional skills and sensorimotor skills. This study provided evidence for the support of TL-Q in the clinical setting and developed an effective protocol for future research.