Angela Alum, ACTwatch Group
Andrew Andrada, ACTwatch Group
Julie Archer, ACTwatch Group
Erik Auko, ACTwatch Group
Katie Bates, ACTwatch Group
Paul Bouanchaud, ACTwatch Group
Meghan Bruce, ACTwatch Group
Angela Camilleri, ACTwatch Group
Emily Carter, ACTwatch Group
Steven Chapman, ACTwatch Group
Nikki Charman, ACTwatch Group
Desmond Chavasse, ACTwatch Group
Kevin Duff, ACTwatch Group
Keith Esch, ACTwatch Group
Anna Fulton, ACTwatch Group
Illah Evance, ACTwatch Group
Anna Fulton, ACTwatch Group
Helen Gataaka, ACTwatch Group
Tarryn Haslam, ACTwatch Group
Emily Harris, ACTwatch Group
Catherine A. Hurley, ACTwatch Group
Beth Kangwana, ACTwatch Group
Esther Kabui, ACTwatch Group
Gloria Kigo, ACTwatch Group
Aliza Lailari, ACTwatch Group
Megan Littrell, ACTwatch GroupFollow
Erik Munroe Julius Ngigi, ACTwatch Group
Kathryn A. O'Connell, ACTwatch Group
Ricki Orford, ACTwatch Group
Carolyne Ochieng, ACTwatch Group
Linda Ongwenyi, ACTwatch Group
Stephen Poyer, ACTwatch Group
Justin Rahariniaina, ACTwatch Group
Lanto Razafindralambo, ACTwatch Group
Christina Riley, ACTwatch Group
John Rodgers, ACTwatch Group
Tanya Shewchuk, ACTwatch Group
Julianna Smith, ACTwatch Group
Tsione Solomon, ACTwatch Group
Raymond Sudoi, ACTwatch Group
Martine Esther Tassiba, ACTwatch Group
Katherine Thanel, ACTwatch Group
Andria Rusk, ACTwatch GroupFollow
Rachel Thompson, ACTwatch Group
Mitsuru Toda, ACTwatch Group
Marie-Alix Valensi, ACTwatch Group
Vamsi Vasireddy, ACTwatch Group
Cynthia Whitman, ACTwatch Group
Godéfroid Mpanya, Association de Santé Familial
Antoinette Tshefu, Ecole de Santé Public de Kinshasa
Joris Losimba Likwela, National Malaria Control Programme

Document Type



Malaria Journal







First Page


Last Page


Publication Date



Public Health



The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is one of the two most leading contributors to the global burden of disease due to malaria. This paper describes the malaria testing and treatment market in the nation’s capital province of Kinshasa, including availability of malaria testing and treatment and relative anti-malarial market share for the public and private sector.


A malaria medicine outlet survey was conducted in Kinshasa province in 2013. Stratified multi-staged sampling was used to select areas for the survey. Within sampled areas, all outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarials in the public and private sector were screened for eligibility. Among outlets with anti-malarials or malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in stock, a full audit of all available products was conducted. Information collected included product information (e.g. active ingredients, brand name), amount reportedly distributed to patients in the past week, and retail price.


In total, 3364 outlets were screened for inclusion across Kinshasa and 1118 outlets were eligible for the study. Among all screened outlets in the private sector only about one in ten (12.1%) were stocking quality-assured Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) medicines. Among all screened public sector facilities, 24.5% had both confirmatory testing and quality-assured ACT available, and 20.2% had sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) available for intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy (IPTp). The private sector distributed the majority of anti-malarials in Kinshasa (96.7%), typically through drug stores (89.1% of the total anti-malarial market). Non-artemisinin therapies were the most commonly distributed anti-malarial (50.1% of the total market), followed by non quality-assured ACT medicines (38.5%). The median price of an adult quality-assured ACT was $6.59, and more expensive than non quality-assured ACT ($3.71) and SP ($0.44). Confirmatory testing was largely not available in the private sector (1.1%).


While the vast majority of anti-malarial medicines distributed to patients in Kinshasa province are sold within the private sector, availability of malaria testing and appropriate treatment for malaria is alarmingly low. There is a critical need to improve access to confirmatory testing and quality-assured ACT in the private sector. Widespread availability and distribution of non quality-assured ACT and non-artemisinin therapies must be addressed to ensure effective malaria case management.


Dr. Megan Littrell (Principal Investigator, 2014-2017); Dr. Kathryn A. O’Connell (Principal Investigator, 2008-2012); Dr. Vamsi Vasireddy (Principal Investigator, 2013)


Copyright © The Author(s), 2017

PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.