Document Type


Journal or Conference Title

Global Studies Literature Review



First Page


Last Page


Publication Date



Universities are now more globally connected than ever before through technology, partnerships, and student mobility as teaching and learning increasingly moves beyond borders into a transnational realm of global education. In response to this globalization of higher education, universities around the world are feeling the pressure to intentionally develop and implement comprehensive internationalization policies, further motivated by a variety of factors including competition and financial growth. However, after nearly a decade of uncritical acceptance and support for the positive merits of the internationalization of higher education, internationalization is recently experiencing an emerging backlash of criticism. The publications presented in this review represent some of the limited but growing body of literature and research that take a critical lens to higher education internationalization paradigms and policies. While each piece reviewed applies varying levels of critique, they all share a common thread of examining 1) the impact of globalization on changing priorities in higher education, and 2) the effect of internationalization policy on global social justice-related educational issues

Publisher Statement

Originally published as Bell, Kati. (2015). Challenging Existing Paradigms: Critiques of Internationalization. Global Studies Literature Review, 6. 1 - 4.