Loneliness is an epidemic whose full impact is only recently receiving the attention it urgently demands. While many solutions are suggested, a time-tested remedy is a companion animal. People report as deep a connection with a companion animal as with the humans in their lives due to the pet’s unconditional love and consistency. While much research has been dedicated to studying companion animal-human bonds with emphasis on dogs and cats, little has been conducted on the less popular household pet, the companion bird, even though bird owners report that their pets show just as much unconditional love and affection as cats and dogs. Given this similarity of experience, I hypothesize that the quality of relationship with a companion bird is positively related to closer relationships with others, and negatively related to depression and loneliness. Data was collected from a sample of N = 203 varying in age over 18, religious backgrounds, ethnicity, and gender, who have previously owned or currently own a companion bird. Five measuring tools distinct to family bonding, quality of life, avian-human relationship, depression, and loneliness have been applied to collect the data to show the positive effects of life with a companion bird. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the quality of relationship between companion bird/owner and family bonding and relationships. This study is important because in the face of the mounting mental health crisis associated amongst people of all ages, the bond formed with the bird offers a fuller life with purpose. The study of human-parrot bond shows there is a great opportunity for future research that will impact the bias against birds leading to more education of the avian species, adoptions for neglected birds living in rescues, and healthy attachments for both people and companion birds.
One life task for many adults, especially women, is the task of parenting. Many factors can be associated with becoming a parent, but one of the most foundational is the desire to have children.
Rholes et al (1997) concluded that regardless of attachment style, a lower desire for children was associated with more negative perceptions of parenting abilities.
Harel and Finzi-Dottan (2018) found that a history of childhood maltreatment was associated with viewing parenting as potentially threatening.
Bailey et al (2012) found that;
- emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing family violence were associated with hostility towards future children
- a mother’s experience of physical or sexual abuse was associated with a self-perceived lack of parental competence and lower emotional availability
Given that a common human response to anything potentially unpleasant is avoidance, the desire to have children becomes diminished for children of abuse. The present study evaluates the relationship between a history of childhood maltreatment and the desire to have children in females.
Intergenerational Trauma and Cultural Dissonance in the Face of Ongoing Social Issues: A Case Study with Vietnamese Youth
Intergenerational Trauma (IT) occurs when the effects of traumatic events are passed down across generations (Isobel et al., 2020), typically through family dynamics and interactional patterns (Hesse & Main, 2000). In the Vietnamese American population, IT is exacerbated by a culture that has historically deprioritized/ignored mental well-being. Which is exacerbated by pressure to adhere to the Model Minority Myth (Hall & Yee, 2012), and by Intergenerational Cultural Dissonance (ICD; conflict caused when the values of younger generations diverge from the traditional culture of their parents (Choi et al., 2008)). While mental health resources for this population were severely inadequate before COVID-19, access to these services are now becoming more limited. Moreover, few studies have examined mental health issues within this community without generalizing Vietnamese Americans with other Asian American ethnicities. The present study explores the intersection of COVID-19, the Black Lives Matter movement, and the ongoing mental health struggles of Vietnamese American youth stemming from IT and ICD. Thirty 18-25 year old second-generation Vietnamese Americans were recruited through various social media outlets to participate in either a focus group interview with two other participants or in two individual interviews to gain a better understanding of their upbringing, parental relationships, and Vietnamese identity. Participants also completed a survey containing the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale (Wu & Chao, 2007) and the short scale for the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hills & Argyle, 2002) to measure the relationship between parent-child relationships and participant’s well-being. Results are expected to reveal untreated/undertreated mental health issues, as well as the occurrence of ICD and IT among participants. Participants whose parents were less educated and/or immigrated at an older age are expected to exhibit more severe ICD/IT, especially regarding contemporary social issues. By identifying this community’s unique needs, this research could improve culturally-relevant mental health resources.
Parents play a critical role in helping children develop into happy and well-adjusted adults. Factors such as secure attachment, parental rearing behaviors, and parental personality all interact to create a developmental context that impacts a child’s experience. Attachment between parent and child, for instance, is the foundation of later relationships in life. However, a variety of other parental factors including parental rearing behaviors and parenting style can influence attachment (Roelofs et al., 2006). Parenting styles that are nurturing, authoritative, and emotionally involved have not only demonstrated more secure attachments in children but have also been reflective of parents who score higher in extraversion and openness to experience (Metsäpelto & Pulkkinen, 2003). The present study seeks to examine the relationship between parental personality, adult children’s attachment to parental figures, and how these factors ultimately influence subjective well-being. The sample included about 50 college students recruited from a small private liberal arts college in northern California and through various social media outlets. Participants completed a survey that combined an adapted version of the Big Five Inventory (John & Srivastava, 1999), the short scale of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hills & Argyle, 2002) and the short form of the Adult Scale of Parental Attachment (Michael & Snow, 2014). Results are expected to indicate that adult children who perceive their parents as high in extraversion, high in openness, and low in neuroticism are more likely to be securely attached and score higher in well-being. This research bridges the gap in attachment research by identifying its relationship with parental personality and how this ultimately affects children’s well-being in adulthood while providing further insight into parental factors that can influence well-being.
Therapeutic riding (TR) is a multisensory experience that increases mental and physical heath by emphasizing skills such as verbal and non-verbal communication, behavioral and emotional control, and attention; additionally, improvements in balance and muscle strength occur in the rider (Bass et al., 2009). However, the present literature is lacking in research on how adults with ASD are impacted by participation in TR. The goal of the present study is to determine the impact of TR on social responsiveness and stress levels on adults with ASD which included a sample of 8 therapeutic riding instructors from the United States. Instructors reported on the social responsiveness and stress levels of their adult riders with ASD at the start and end of six weeks of TR. The Adult Social Behavior Scale- Other Report (Horwitz et al., 2016) and an adapted version of the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen at al., 1983) were used as pre-and post-tests to compare the changes over time. Results of the paired sample t-tests showed no significant changes in observed social behaviors including contact, empathy, interpersonal insight, violations of social conventions, or in observed stress. These findings, though not signifincant, advocate for more research on adults and TR as this is an underserved population in the literature.
Maria Alvarez Pineda
In the United States, patients who have Limited English Proficiency (LEP) report having more problems communicating with their children’s doctors (Eneriz-Wieme et al., 2014) and experiencing more discrimination (Zhang et al., 2012) which can lead to increased psychological distress (Torres et al., 2012). The goal of this study was to determine if level of English Proficiency is related to stress levels and discrimination among Latinx parents. Participants consisted of 22 Latinx parents (86.4% Mexican and 90.9% female) in the San Francisco Bay Area. The Acute Stress Appraisals scale (Mendes, et al., 2007) measured parents' stress levels before and after an interview about the parent’s experience taking their children to the doctor. Participants completed a survey that consisted of the Language Fluency Measure (Kim & Chao, 2009), the Adapted Everyday Discrimination Scale (Gonzalez et al., 2016), and demographic questions. Results demonstrated that regardless of Engligh proficency Latinx parents experience discrimination, a communication barrier, and negative feelings when taking their children to the doctor. Parents hope that in the future more interpreters will be available and that doctors will be more understanding. Public health practitioners should use Latinx parents’ aspirations to guide interventions to improve their overall experience taking their children to the doctor.
While on the cancer continuum, individuals report a sense of social isolation due to a lack of understanding among peers about their experiences and diagnoses (Iannarino et al., 2017). Increasingly, social support is given online rather than in person due to the positive language and communication that relies on the written word more than social cues (Warner et al., 2018). Participants in this study were 152 young adults recruited from a private university and via social media platforms. Participants were asked to complete a survey including The Measure of Interpersonal Attraction Social Attraction sub-scale (McCroskey & McCain, 1974) and a measure of virtual and in person support for a peer who is in cancer current treatment or in remission. Results demonstrated that a young adult in remission of cancer is perceived as significantly more socially attractive than a young adult in current treatment of cancer. Other noteworthy results were that females significantly gave higher amounts of social support, both virtually and in-person, to a peer on the cancer continuum than males. Findings advocate for the understanding of the cancer diagnosis by young adults in hopes that their peers on the cancer continuum can receive more social support and be perceived as socially attractive.
Rhoda Maunupau Robertson
Despite the growing number of single parents returning to college to gain a better future for their families, 53% of student parents leave college within 6 years without a degree (Beeler, 2016). However, being hopeful enables student parents to focus on success which increase the probability to attain their goals and success (Snyder et al., 1991). The ability to achieve those goals comes from help-seeking, mentoring, and the ability to seek resources (Snyder et al., 1991). The goal of the present study is to examine levels of hope which enhance help-seeking skills to increase academic success within this population. The sample consisted of 26 single parents that are currently enrolled in community college or 4-year university. Participants were recruited via emails and social media via the snowball method. Constructs were measured with Snyder’s Adult Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and a help-seeking and academic success scale that were created by the researcher. Results show that positive correlations between hope, help seeking behavior, and perceived academic success. However, despite the positive correlation between these three variables, there is no significant correlation between any of these variables and the current GPA. Supplemental investigation into the amount of time that each participant studied weekly, still showed no significant correlation between GPA and perceived academic success.
Spontaneous affirmations have been associated with greater levels of happiness (Emmanuel et al., 2018), and self-esteem has found to be fostered through positive regard from others (Rogers, 1951 as cited by Maxwell & Bachkirova, 2010). Past research shows that delivering virtual messages through a mobile phone is a widely accessible method in facilitating behavior changes (Sharifi et al., 2013). The goal of this study is to examine how virtual positive affirmations via mobile app or text message can increase self-esteem and well-being. Twenty-three participants were recruited from psychology courses, mostly females aged 18-22 and of Asian descent. Participants were sent a pre-test survey consisting of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), the Flourishing Scale (Diener & Biswas-Diener, 2009), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985). They were randomly assigned to either the mobile app or the text condition and received two virtual affirmations daily for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks they were asked to retake the survey as a post-test measure. Significant increases were found between pre-test and post-test scores for self-esteem, flourishing, and satisfaction with life, yet no significant differences were found between changes in scores of participants in the text versus mobile app conditions. Findings suggest that virtual positive affirmations have a significant beneficial impact on reported self-esteem and well-being.
Studies investigating motivations for listening to sad music typically report claims by listeners that an improved mood is amongst the primary reasons for listening to sad music (Saarikallio, 2008). But, evidence shows that moods generally decrease when we listen to sad music (Saarikallio & Erkkilä, 2007). However, sad music can also bring about some psychological benefits. People with high tendencies towards reflectiveness may find that sad music can be used as a tool for processing their negative emotions resulting in an overall improvement in mood (Garrido & Schubert, 2013; Trapnell & Campbell, 1999). Sample consisted of 50 participants of college students from classrooms and social media. The survey asked a sample of college students to measure their moods before and after listening to a sad piece of self selected music. Trapnell and Campbell’s Rumination Reflection Questionnaire (1999) measured whether participants were ruminators. Additionally students were asked about their perception of psychological benefits of listening to sad music when experiencing negative emotions. It was found that people had a decrease in positive emotion after listening to their selected song. However, there was no change in participants' negative emotions after listening to their song. Ruminators did not experience more or less change than non-ruminators after listening to the sad music. Participants who felt more positive emotion before listening to the song felt less negative emotion after listening to the song.
The societal view that criminals are inherently dangerous is a view exceedingly present in American culture. Prior research suggests that education significantly improves knowledge and positive attitudes towards stigmatized groups (Lam et al, 2019) which this present study hopes to expand on. The present study tested the impact of a brief educational intervention on stigma against criminals. Participants included 141 participants (81.8% females and 17.5% males), recruited from a private university in Northern California and through various social media platforms. Participants were randomly assigned into four different conditions created by manipulating two variables (educational video vs. no video; vignette about a violent vs. nonviolent criminal). Results demonstrated a significant difference in the social and task attraction of criminals such that participants viewed nonviolent criminals as more socially and task attractive than violent criminals. Secondly, results demonstrated no significant difference in social and task attraction of criminals between those that watched the educational video and those who did not. Finally, the results demonstrated no significant interaction between crime severity and its impact on the effectiveness of the educational video. However, the study did demonstrate a significant main effect for crime severity and education, with positive perceptions of nonviolent criminals enhanced particularly with the viewing of the educational video. Results suggest that through the use of education, negative perceptions towards criminals can be changed for the better.
Effects of Self-Efficacy and Stigmatization when Managing Patients with Addiction and Substance Use Disorders
People who suffer with addiction are more likely to be treated as outsiders, which result in social disadvantages and maltreatment in a medical setting. This is because substance abuse can be perceived as deviating from social norms (Henderson & Dressler, 2017).
Higher post-secondary education on addiction could reduce stigmatization and improve self-efficacy for better healthcare outcomes. Previous research has revealed that appropriate training is important when forming nonjudgmental attitudes towards drug users (Baldwin et al., 2006).
The purpose of this study is to address the gap between post-secondary education, reducing stigmatization and improving self-efficacy among healthcare professionals
- Gender stereotypes divide men and women along biological, emotional, and cognitive lines. This social construct can be summed up by the phrase “men are from Mars, women are from Venus.”
- The sex of a person is the biological category of male or female and gender is the social aspect of being male or female (Robinson et al., 2001).
- Social constructs thatpromote gender stereotypes can have an impact on the suppression of biological responses (Brody, 1997). This thinking influences behaviorin men and women that is self-fulfilling to gender stereotypes (Baez et al., 2017).
- This may have an effect on how men and women perceive the equity and satisfaction within romantic relationships
The CDC recorded an increase from 7.2 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 1987 to 18.0 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2014 with 60% of those being preventable (Reproductive Health, 2018). Birthing a child can be a significant and emotional experience (Hans et al., 2013). Unfortunately, continuous support during labor and delivery has become a privilege instead of a basic right in a hospital setting (Hodnett, Gates, Hofmeyr, & Sakala, 2005). A study on doula support during labor and delivery showed that women feel there is a lack of information being provided by medical staff in a hospital (Campero et al, 1998).
The goal of the present study is to determine whether there is a difference in delivery outcomes between mothers that utilize a doula and/or midwife during childbirth versus those who only used standard physicians. The study included a sample of approximately 50 adult women that had at least one personal experience with childbirth. Participants were recruited via Facebook and through personal relationships. Participants were asked to complete an online survey including the following measures: Scale of Women’s Perception for Supportive Care Given During Labor (Uludag, & Mete, 2015), Childbirth Perceptions Questionnaire (Padawer, Fagan, Janoff-Bulman, Strickland, & Chorowski, 1988), Birth Satisfaction Scale (Jefford, Hollins Martin, & Martin, 2018), and Fear of Birth Scale (Stoll, & Hall, 2013). I hypothesize that women who utilized a doula and/or midwife during labor and delivery, had a more pleasant birthing experience, felt more prepared, and were less likely to have a cesarean birth than women who only used western medicine support.
The question of whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is over-diagnosed in adolescents has been a recent topic of research. Through research studies, a trend for potential over-diagnosis has been found. Misdiagnosis and over-diagnosis mainly occur due to societal norms clouding perceptions of the disorder. (Bruchmüller et al., 2012)
Classroom inclusivity is an area that could potentially improve misdiagnosis and over-diagnosis of ADHD. Inclusive classroom training can spread both awareness and understanding about the disorder, ultimately reducing misconceptions about ADHD.
The present study explored several hypotheses: Hypothesis
1: Students’ perception of their ADHD knowledge is not correlated with their actual knowledge of ADHD. Hypothesis
2: Pre-service teachers will more accurately refer students who display ADHD than the general population of student participants. Hypothesis
3: Students with more inclusive classroom training will more accurately refer students who display ADHD.
It is a universal understanding that in order for nature to survive, humans must live responsibly. In October 2018 at the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the world’s leading scientists issued a twelve year ultimatum to change our environmental habits (National Geographic, 2018). However, the critical issue of climate change has not evoked a correspondingly serious and crucial response among the general public.
Ecological identity, otherwise known as Environmental identity, refers to how one views oneself in relation to the natural world, and a part of how we form our self-concept (Clayton, 2013).
Past research has shown that humans feel a greater responsibility to nature when they are directly exposed to it. For example, Clayton, Luebke, Saunders, Matiasek, & Grajal (2014) found that feeling connected to animals at the zoo or an aquarium was significantly associated with cognitive and emotional responses to climate change.
Other research has proposed that having a strong ecological identity in adulthood may have developed through greater exposure to nature during one’s childhood (Kals, Shumaker, & Montada, 1999).
The purpose of the present study was to more closely examine the relationship between childhood exposure to nature and adulthood ecological identity
The Effects of Perceived Discrimination and Acculturative Stress on Ethnic Minority Your Adult Self-Esteem and Anxiety
- Minority college students are at increased risk for negative mental health outcomes and self-esteem issues considering acculturative stress and perceived discrimination(Gomez et al.,2011).
- How discrimination is viewed by the individual and how they adjust to dominant culture plays an important role in self-esteem(Halletal.,2015).
- Studies following the relationship between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress rarely look into mental health outcomes along with self-esteem(Paukertetal.,2006;Weietal,2013).
- This research may provide insight into the mechanisms which affect psychological distress(Tonsingetal,2016).
The Efficacy of Live Music Therapy on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Among College Students and Working Adults
- There are an estimated 264 million people living with Anxiety Disorders, and an estimated 322 million people living with Depression (WHO, 2017)
- Live music has been found to be more effective than recorded music in decreasing anxiety levels in cancer patients and patients with mental health disorders in various studies (Bailey, 1983; Ferrer, 2007).
- Chiasson et. al (2013) demonstrated that patients observed in an intensive ward unit experienced a decreased pain by 27% when exposed to live spontaneous harp music.
- This study aims to explore how frequent exposure to live & recorded music can be therapeutic to help cope with stress, anxiety, and depression
Have a Safe Trip: Ecstasy Exposure, Perceived Risk, and Harm-Reduction Practices Among College Students
Nicole Alexis Ladines
Ecstasy – also known as 3, 4-Methylene dioxymetham-phetamine, or MDMA - has become one of the most notorious “club” drugs (Havere et al., 2011). SAMHSA (2015) reported that 6.8% of the U.S. population over the age of 12 had reported lifetime use of ecstasy. It has become popular as a social activity due to its subjective effects, such as feelings of connectedness, empathy, and heightened sensuality and sexuality (Leslie et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2010). Because of this, ecstasy use is prevalent among musical events such as nightclubs, festivals, and raves (Leslie et al., 2015). Prior studies on ecstasy users’ attitudes of perceived risk show that while some may understand that there are health risks involved, others believe that there is no harm at all in using ecstasy (Martins et al., 2011). The Harm Reduction Drugs Education (HDRE) approach argues that because the illicit usage of drugs cannot necessarily be stopped, the next step in safety would be to reduce or minimize any harm that can occur from using substances through harm-reduction practices (Akram & Galt, 1999). I hypothesize that higher ecstasy exposure will predict a higher sense of risk, which in turn will be a predictor of utilization of harm-reduction practices among ecstasy users.
The sample consisted of over 100 college students located in the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants were recruited through snowball sampling through social media and by classroom invitation. They were given a survey consisting of their Index of Habit Strength, an Ecstasy Use History Questionnaire (Davis, 2016) as well as three questions on Perceived Risk (Martins et al., 2011). The predicted results are that those who attend musical events are more exposed to ecstasy and that those with more exposure associate risk with usage. Results are also expected to demonstrate that one’s perception of risk will indicate engagement in harm-reduction practices, such as drinking water/electrolyte – rich fluids, preloading/postloading, and pill-checking (Davis, 2016). This research will advocate for implementation of harm-reduction practices as well as furthering knowledge on safety in recreational drug use.
This study examined college students’ moods during different seasons patterns throughout the year. Previous research has indicated that many individuals feel more lethargic, lonely and moody during the winter months (Rohan & Sigmon, 2000). These mood and behavior patterns clearly depend on specific seasons of the year. However, many studies have produced inconsistent findings and current data on how weather impacts college aged students moods in California (Lucht & Kasper, 1999). There are many inconsistent studies in the United States that indicate whether there is a higher fluctuation in women’s moods during seasonal change than there is with men(Chotai, Smedh, Johansson, Nilsson, Adolfsson, 2003). The current study investigated gender differences in college students and how weather impacts their overall mood in Northern California. It was hypothesized that women have a higher Global Seasonality Score (GSS) than men. It was also hypothesized that college -aged women experience more seasonal fluctuations in mood, socialization, sleep, eating patterns, and weight gain than men do. The current study involved 60 college students from a northern California university. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ; Rosenthal, 1984), a 7-item survey that measures of winter pattern seasonality of mood in the general population along with demographic and weather related questions were used to assess the effects of weather on mood and behavioral patterns. Results are expected to conclude that there is a statistically significant difference in GSS between men and women. Analyses are also expected to indicate that women’s mood, socialization, sleep, eating patterns, and weight fluctuation more than men’s. It can be concluded that there are gender differences in mood fluctuations that result from seasonal change.Furthermore, the analysis reveals a better understanding of how women and men adapt to seasonal change and provide support for further research within this topic. In regards of the results, the research is critical in understanding the correlation on why women’s overall mood fluctuates during different seasons of the year.
Discrimination is the act of negatively behaving towards a person or group of people due to the social group these individuals belong to. Although, as a society we like to believe that discrimination does not occur as often as it does, it can take many forms that we can be oblivious to. As a healthcare provider, one is held to a higher standard that many often forget are still human susceptible to the same vices. Discrimination in healthcare is a topic that many are not aware of the prevalence in our healthcare system. It might seem that the societal perceptions of different ethnic groups would not affect the healthcare sector but it does (Yearby, 2010).
The current study examined if unconscious biases had an affect on whether or not certain patients receive full scope treatment. The study proposed that racial discrimination affects the kind of treatment patients receive which leads to alarming health disparities between majority and minority group members. The study aimed to reveal the psychological nature of discrimination and how covert discrimination is the main culprit behind the differences in medical treatments received from healthcare providers. Empathy and personality scales were used to measure whether or not covert discrimination was present in those trying to enter and already working the healthcare field.
Participants were anonymously surveyed and provided their self-identified demographics, were given the student version of Jefferson Empathy Scale, randomly assigned one out of three vignettes about a patient, were asked further questions on how likely the participant would be to treat the patient and the speed in which they would administer pain medication if at all. Then, the participants were asked to rate the patient’s personality through a condensed version of the Big Five Inventory. Lastly, the participants were dismissed with a thank you for participation letter.
A diverse sample of students in healthcare related majors and at a small private liberal arts school and Bay Area healthcare professionals were recruited through social media, email, and an in class presentation for the study. The study was hosted online through SurveyMonkey.com and was open for 60 days.
It was hypothesized that the higher the empathy levels of the healthcare provider, the higher level of care they would administer to a patient. It was also hypothesized that due to subconscious biases that are perpetuated by society, African Americans are more likely to be given less treatment as opposed to Caucasian and Non-Stated race patients or thought to be exaggerating their medical experiences (level of pain) by the healthcare providers (healthcare related majoring students and professionals).
The findings of this study are intended to broaden the awareness of racial discrimination in healthcare and showcase how negative stereotypes of certain ethnic groups affect every aspect of life, including receiving of health care.
Many believe the primary role in life is to settle down and have children. The present study focuses on understanding what can influence a person’s choice to have children. With a wide variety of childhood experiences that exist, as well as the influences of an optimism/pessimism attitude about life, this study will focus on how these characteristics can combine to influence one’s decision to have children.
According to McDonnell (2012), many of those who experienced an unstable or undesirable childhood grow up wanting no children as a way to not repeat the cycle. Meanwhile, some who experienced adversity in childhood seek parenthood as a way to do the opposite of what they experienced, and effort to provide better for their children. What differentiates these responses may have to do with general attitude about the world.
Individuals vary on their optimism-pessimism level. Evidence has been found that show optimism and pessimism to exist on a singular, bi-polar spectrum (Marshall, Wortman, Kusulas, Hervig, & Vickers, 1992); high optimism equates to a low level of pessimism and vice versa.
Studies have also shown that childhood adversities can play a large role when it comes to adulthood dispositional optimism (Korkeila et al, 2004). It is clear, then that childhood experiences, optimism-pessimism, and desire to have children are all somehow interconnected; these relationships suggests the following hypotheses: 1) Adults who had little or no adversity in childhood will desire to have children, independent of their levels of optimism/pessimism; and 2) Adults who did experience childhood adversity only will desire to have children if they are also high in levels of general optimism.
Past research has indicated that immigrant college students experience acculturative shock and stress, arising from acculturative adjusting (Barlow, 2002; Cohen & Wills, 1985; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). This study explored the potential relationships between acculturative stress, perceived social support, and self-concealment amongst immigrant college students. Further, the study examined whether social support is related to lower acculturative stress for students. It was hypothesized that strong social support would be negatively related to acculturative stress, and that self-concealment would be positively related to acculturative stress.
Results indicate that there was a significant positive relationship between self-concealment and acculturative stress in this sample, indicating that participants who utilized self-concealment also experienced higher levels of acculturative stress. On the other hand, no relationship was found between perceived social support and acculturative stress. Findings indicate that immigrant students with a high level of self-concealment also experience difficulty acculturating to the culture in which they currently live. This has implications for immigration students’ ability to engage fully in school and for educational policy acculturative stress.
Parent culturally incompatibility was evaluated for its possible negative impact on a bicultural offspring’s cultural identity development. The 43 self-identified bicultural participants, aged from 18 to 67 years, provided family cultural histories, and completed the Parental Cultural Conflict Scale (PCCS) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). The hypothesized relationship between high PCCS levels and low MEIM levels was not supported by the data; however, the range of responses on the PCCS was very limited with a complete absence of any very low or very high conflict scores. It was concluded that parents’ cultural incompatibility does not have the level of negative impact on their offspring’s cultural identity development as originally anticipated, but due to the limited range of PCCS values, the hypothesis cannot be completely rejected. Results also demonstrated that there was also no significant difference found in the mean MEIM scores for the bicultural study sample and published norms for various monocultural groups, suggesting that bicultural children may find their path to self-identification that is neither enhanced nor impaired by having two parents of different cultures.
It was suggested that individuals who experience a stressful childhood may have learned from these experiences and developed a greater ability to cope with stress as adults; this ability is independent of general self-esteem. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Childhood Traumatic Events Scale, the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale and a Stressful Events Questionnaire were completed by 64 participants. Comparing those who had traumatic childhood experiences with those who had not, the results showed no significant group differences for the Coping Scores. Those with traumatic childhoods had significantly lower self-esteem, and had experienced higher (but not significantly different) levels of stress during past week and also in general during past three months. It was concluded that childhood traumatic experiences have little or no observable influence on how adults cope with or respond to stressful events.
A collection of research poster on which Psychology students, from Dominican University of California, are listed as an author.
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