Graduation Year


Document Type

Senior Thesis


Bachelor of Arts

Primary Major


Thesis Advisor

Veronica Fruiht, PhD


Spontaneous affirmations have been associated with greater levels of happiness (Emmanuel et al., 2018), and self-esteem has found to be fostered through positive regard from others (Rogers, 1951 as cited by Maxwell & Bachkirova, 2010). Past research shows that delivering virtual messages through a mobile phone is a widely accessible method in facilitating behavior changes (Sharifi et al., 2013). The goal of this study is to examine how virtual positive affirmations via mobile app or text message can increase self-esteem and well-being. Twenty-three participants were recruited from psychology courses, mostly females aged 18-22 and of Asian descent. Participants were sent a pre-test survey consisting of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), the Flourishing Scale (Diener & Biswas-Diener, 2009), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985). They were randomly assigned to either the mobile app or the text condition and received two virtual affirmations daily for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks they were asked to retake the survey as a post-test measure. Significant increases were found between pre-test and post-test scores for self-esteem, flourishing, and satisfaction with life, yet no significant differences were found between changes in scores of participants in the text versus mobile app conditions. Findings suggest that virtual positive affirmations have a significant beneficial impact on reported self-esteem and well-being.

Included in

Psychology Commons