Graduation Date


Document Type

Capstone Project

Project Type

Quantitative Study

Degree Name

Master of Science in Occupational Therapy


Occupational Therapy

Program Chair

Julia Wilbarger, PhD, OTR/L

Faculty Advisor

Julia Wilbarger, PhD, OTR/L


OBJECTIVE: The negative impacts of sensory modulation disorder (SMD), anxiety, and altered interoceptive awareness (AIA) on daily occupations reinforced the need for the study of the relationship between sensory modulation, anxiety, and interoception in typical adults. Understanding the relationship between the three constructs is the first step in the ultimate goal of developing effective intervention and treatment measures.

METHODS: This cross-sectional, exploratory study analyzed the relationship between scores on four self-report measures in an online survey: State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Sensory Responsiveness Questionnaire (SRQ), and Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, Version 2 (MAIA-2). Participants were recruited via snowballing and a convenience sample of typical adults. Data was analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 22).

RESULTS: Data from 186 respondents showed moderately positive significant correlations between variables: (1) MAIA-2 and SRQ sum; (2) MAIA-2 and STAI state anxiety total; (3) MAIA-2 total and STAI trait anxiety total; (4) SRQ sum and STAI state anxiety total; and (5) STAI trait total and SRQ sum.

CONCLUSION: This correlational study shines light on the distinct interrelationship between SMD, AIA, and anxiety. Results indicate a significant interrelationship between SMD, AIA, and anxiety. Findings indicate that there is a relationship between co-occurring constructs: SMD and AIA; AIA and anxiety; SMD and anxiety. However, further research needs to be done to determine directionality.