Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase mediates oxidative and excitotoxic neuronal death.
Digital Object Identifier / DOI
Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Excessive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) leads to NAD(+) depletion and cell death during ischemia and other conditions that generate extensive DNA damage. When activated by DNA strand breaks, PARP1 uses NAD(+) as substrate to form ADP-ribose polymers on specific acceptor proteins. These polymers are in turn rapidly degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), a ubiquitously expressed exo- and endoglycohydrolase. In this study, we examined the role of PARG in the PARP1-mediated cell death pathway. Mouse neuron and astrocyte cultures were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), or the DNA alkylating agent, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Cell death in each condition was markedly reduced by the PARP1 inhibitor benzamide and equally reduced by the PARG inhibitors gallotannin and nobotanin B. The PARP1 inhibitor benzamide and the PARG inhibitor gallotannin both prevented the NAD(+) depletion that otherwise results from PARP1 activation by MNNG or H(2)O(2). However, these agents had opposite effects on protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Immunostaining for poly(ADP-ribose) on Western blots and neuron cultures showed benzamide to decrease and gallotannin to increase poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation during MNNG exposure. These results suggest that PARG inhibitors do not inhibit PARP1 directly, but instead prevent PARP1-mediated cell death by slowing the turnover of poly(ADP-ribose) and thus slowing NAD(+) consumption. PARG appears to be a necessary component of the PARP-mediated cell death pathway, and PARG inhibitors may have promise as neuroprotective agents.
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