Graduation Year


Document Type

Master's Thesis


Master of Science



Program Director

Jennifer Lucko, PhD

First Reader

Matthew E. Davis, PhD

Second Reader

Katherine Lewis, PhD


This research explored the impacts of a linguistically inclusive Spanish reading group on student learning outcomes. This research took place at an elementary school in Marin, which consists of a large Spanish speaking and rural community of third and fourth graders. The research takes into consideration grouping methods (Oakes, 2005), Critical Race Theory (Solórzano & Yosso, 2002), and Schema Theory (Rumelhart, 2017) with regard to a Spanish classroom, in order to reimagine educational structures and instructional approaches. Through Spanish reading group sessions, interviews with adult stakeholders, and a student participant focus group, it is evident that all groups believe that class integration is more effective in acquiring a second language compared to traditional forms of leveled groupings for class segregation. The student participants also revealed internalized perceptions of race about themselves and others as Spanish language learners. The findings of this research point toward important implications for how schools implement effective grouping policies around language integration, and how teachers integrate their own classroom practices to understand student identity and to support language learning.

IRB Number