American Journal of Occupational Therapy
OBJECTIVE. To conduct an evidence-based review of intervention studies of older drivers with medical conditions.
METHOD. We used the American Occupational Therapy Association’s classification criteria (Levels I–V, I 5 highest level of evidence) to identify driving interventions. We classified studies using letters to represent the strength of recommendations: A 5 strongly recommend the intervention; B 5 recommend intervention is provided routinely; C 5 weak evidence that the intervention can improve outcomes; D 5 recommend not to provide the intervention; I 5 insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the intervention.
RESULTS. For clients with stroke, we recommend a graded simulator intervention (A) and multimodal training in traffic theory knowledge and on-road interventions (B); we make no recommendation for or against Dynavision, Useful Field of View, or visual–perceptual interventions (I). For clients with visual deficits, we recommend educational intervention (A) and bioptic training (B); we make no recommendation for or against prism lenses (I). For clients with dementia, we recommend driving restriction interventions (C) and make no recommendation for or against use of compensatory driving strategies (I).
CONCLUSION. Level I studies are needed to identify effective interventions for medically at-risk older drivers.
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