Michelle Beckwith, Brina Nguyen, Jennifer Sik, Kenneth Yu, and Laura Greiss Hess
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual and developmental disability, and a known genetic cause of autism. Individuals with FXS present with deficits in cognition, social skills, behavior, language and sensory processing skills; all of which are commonly assessed through standardized and norm-referenced assessments. However, these outcome measures are sometimes not sensitive to contextually based changes in daily life. Further, there is limited research employing qualitative methods in the FXS literature. The purpose of this research was to examine family perspectives collected via semi-structured interviews as part of a randomized controlled medication trial of sertraline (Zoloft®) on children two to six years old diagnosed with FXS. The constant comparison method was used to analyze differences in family expressions of their child’s improvements over the course of the 6-month clinical trial. Twelve interviews were analyzed, six-treatment, six-placebo, and all coding was done blind to group assignment. Results indicated greater improvements in the treatment group when compared to the placebo group in: anxiety, receptive / expressive communication, maladaptive behaviors and some sensory issues. These preliminary findings warrant a need for further research with a larger sample.
Jeffrey Kou, Yvonne Lam, Patricia Lyons, and Susan Nguyen
Low vision is an age-related condition that affects many older adults, and may create challenges in everyday activities in older adults. Guide dogs have been shown to be an effective assistive device that can help older adults within their community. Despite vast research on dog companionship, there is limited research on the facilitators and barriers of owning a guide dog among older adults with low vision. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study is to explore the facilitators and barriers of owning a guide dog as experienced by older adults with low vision participating in Guide Dogs for the Blind (GDB) organization. Seven first time guide dog owners, ages 55 and older, were interviewed using semi-structured questions. Through constant comparison methods, five major themes emerged: changes in habits and routines, being a dog guide owner, increase in community integration, human-dog guide bonding, and dog guide enhances autonomy. Study results provide implications for occupational therapists (OT) of how guide dogs affect the daily living patterns of older adults. Additionally, study results provide insight for GDB and OTs into improving support and training processes.
Sarah L. Yoder, Jason Ichimaru, Emily Lu, and Nghi Tran
As the number of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entering adulthood grows, it is crucial to identify interventions that can help this population acquire adaptive behaviors necessary for independent living and employment. This study aimed to identify how Autisty Studio’s project-based therapy impacts this population’s engagement in adaptive behaviors.The study utilized the Brief Adaptive Behavior Scale (BABS), a quantitative assessment informed by the BRIEF-2 and the Vineland-II, to measure improvements in adaptive behaviors in 11 participants at Autistry Studios. Specifically, the BABS measured frequency (Frq), highest level of assistance (LoAHigh) required, and lowest level of assistance (LoALow) required to engage in adaptive behaviors over the course of nine sessions. Domains of Frq, LoAHigh and LoALow scores included executive functioning (EF), socialization (SOC), and self-regulation (SR). Analysis using a Repeated Measures ANOVAs and paired-sample T-test found significant differences and trends toward significance of the LoAHigh and LoALow scores in the domains of EF and SOC , indicating that Autistry’s pre-vocational, project-based therapy program is effective in improving adaptive behavior skills in adults with ASD, as measured by the BABS.
Parent culturally incompatibility was evaluated for its possible negative impact on a bicultural offspring’s cultural identity development. The 43 self-identified bicultural participants, aged from 18 to 67 years, provided family cultural histories, and completed the Parental Cultural Conflict Scale (PCCS) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). The hypothesized relationship between high PCCS levels and low MEIM levels was not supported by the data; however, the range of responses on the PCCS was very limited with a complete absence of any very low or very high conflict scores. It was concluded that parents’ cultural incompatibility does not have the level of negative impact on their offspring’s cultural identity development as originally anticipated, but due to the limited range of PCCS values, the hypothesis cannot be completely rejected. Results also demonstrated that there was also no significant difference found in the mean MEIM scores for the bicultural study sample and published norms for various monocultural groups, suggesting that bicultural children may find their path to self-identification that is neither enhanced nor impaired by having two parents of different cultures.
Pilot Study: Assistive Technology as a Vocational Support for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Erin Chaffee, Christina Ho, and Kevin Ng
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of video-based instruction (VBI) to support completion of vocational tasks. A mixed-method approach was utilized to explore the use of VBI on a personal digital assistant with adults with autism spectrum disorder. Using two assembling cooking tasks, researchers investigated the level of independence with task completion through written instruction versus VBI. The results indicated a small non-significant increase in the level of independence with task completion during the intervention task independent of intelligence quotient (IQ) levels. Participant’s feedback of VBI was also noted as positive to help learn other tasks. This study presents evidence for the use of assistive technology to support task completion in the area of vocation.
Jessica McClain, Caroline Lee, and Katelyn Gullatt
We sought to investigate whether three protective factors, (physical health, social support, and self-efficacy) predict resilience in Marin County older adults to promote successful aging in place. Fifty-eight Marin County participants aged 62 years and older participated in an exploratory cross-sectional quantitative study. Recruited from senior community programs and personal contacts, participants completed four self-report questionnaires. Descriptive and multivariate analyses using SPSS were conducted to investigate the relationship between the key variables. Of the three protective factors, self-efficacy is the most important predictor of resilience. Physical health and social support are important predictors of self-efficacy. In conclusion, three protective factors influence resilience, especially self-efficacy, and should be incorporated into occupational therapy interventions to build resilience in older adults.
It was suggested that individuals who experience a stressful childhood may have learned from these experiences and developed a greater ability to cope with stress as adults; this ability is independent of general self-esteem. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Childhood Traumatic Events Scale, the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale and a Stressful Events Questionnaire were completed by 64 participants. Comparing those who had traumatic childhood experiences with those who had not, the results showed no significant group differences for the Coping Scores. Those with traumatic childhoods had significantly lower self-esteem, and had experienced higher (but not significantly different) levels of stress during past week and also in general during past three months. It was concluded that childhood traumatic experiences have little or no observable influence on how adults cope with or respond to stressful events.
The development of an individual’s beliefs about God is significantly influenced by teachings of parents. However, not all children have the exact same beliefs as their parents. The present study will examine what may be the characteristics of individual who have similar or differing beliefs than those to which they were exposed as a child.
Although not identical to a “belief in God”, much of the past research evaluating belief systems has focused primarily of “religiosity”. Caldwell-Harris (2012) noted that openness to experience was the personality characteristic that differed most between the religious and non-religious respondents. Even controlling for education, gender, marriage, and child rearing openness remained, the strongest predictor of both lower religious belief and membership. In a study by Luke and Kim (2011) compared religious and views on strength of beliefs and found that even people who are not religious can hold very strong views and stick to these opinions avidly.
While several have studied relationship of personality and relition, few have evaluated the origins of those ideas, i.e., how beliefs may have changed since childhood. Arnett, Jensen (2002) studied religious socialization and found that beliefs in emerging adulthood show an increase in a skeptical view of religious institutions.
The adult’s beliefs about God, therefore, would seem to be a combination of the set of ideas taught by the parent and the personality characteristic of the adult child which have allowed the individual to retain or migrate away from those teaching. It is hypothesized that adults who score high in Openness are more likely to have a different set of beliefs than those which where taught to them as a child.
Methodology includes online data collection of demographics, measures parents and children’s beliefs, and the Big Five personality inventory. Results will be available in April 2017.
Twice exceptionality, or 2e, is the recently-coined term for the intersection of learning disabilities (LDs) and giftedness in an individual. Typically, these learning disabilities encompass ADHD, ASD, and/or specific learning disorders such as dyslexia. Because giftedness may obscure or compensate for a student’s academic struggles, and because institutional fixation on disability may overshadow intelligence, twice exceptionality is often missed by teachers and other authority figures in a child’s life. Given the ongoing difficulties of screening for twice exceptionality, it is likely that many 2e students have gone unidentified throughout most of their academic careers, without receiving the accommodations that would most benefit their studies. Furthermore, 2e adults whose schooling predated widespread awareness of twice exceptionality are more likely to have been diagnosed later in life.
The twin prongs of identification and intervention for 2e youth make up the bulk of studies in the field. Today’s 2e youth are better-identified, better-studied, and better-supported than any previous generation, but 2e adults remain an understudied population. In addition to the difficulties and contradictions inherent in twice exceptionality, late identification and lack of support are likely to have negatively impacted twice exceptional adults, both in and out of the classroom.
The present study will examine the ability of 2e adults to effectively cope with stressors in their lives, as well as their current level of life satisfaction. Approximately fifty or more 2e adults will be recruited through email and social media, and via the disability department of a small liberal arts university. Participants will be asked about their diagnostic histories and their experiences with higher education, and will then complete the Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S., 1985) and Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (Chesney, M.A., Neilands, T.B., Chambers, D.B., Taylor, J.M., & Folkman, S., 2006). Data will be collected and analyzed in March and April 2017.
We hypothesize that there will be a relationship between the age of identification as twice exceptional and adult quality of life, operationalized by Satisfaction with Life and Coping Self-Efficacy. Additionally, we will explore the relationships between specific diagnoses and these variables, as well as factors of race and gender. This study will provide information on an underserved and understudied group, and we hope it will provide a deeper understanding of the needs and strengths of this population.
Sarah Button, Emily Minor, and Kristen Christensen
Objective: Sensory processing issues can have a large negative impact on the ability to participate in daily occupations such as ADLs, access to work, school and leisure environments, and social interactions (Dunn, 2001). The evidence documenting sensory processing issues in adults is sparse. Physiological information can be used as objective evidence to support the claim that those with over-responsivity to sensations are experiencing their environment differently than the typical population. Understanding more about sensory processing in adults may lead to increased recognition of the problem and more opportunities for intervention to increase occupational participation. The purpose of this quantitative study compared the physiological responses to sensation in people who self-report as high in sensory sensitivity compared to people who self-report as low in sensory sensitivity.
Method: Using a quasi-experimental design, physiological responses to sensation in typical adults was measured. The use of the Sensory Profile assessment as a behavioral self-reported measure was used as a pretest and the Sensory Challenge Protocol was used as our physiological outcome measure to quantify participants’ physiological responses to sensation.
Results: No significant differences were shown between experimental and control groups in EDR responses to stimuli. Based on the sensory profile, participants’ in the experimental group who identified as sensory sensitive had higher EDR responses to more the intense sensations, such as mower (1.3), feather (1.8), and camphor (1.7). There is a significant correlation between low registration and sensory sensitive (.678), sensory avoidant (.847) and sensory defensive (.817) for the experimental group’s self-reported scores on the Sensory Profile supporting the idea that people who have sensory sensitivities may also suppress responses to sensation.
Conclusion: There are differential, meaningful patterns observed in how people with sensory sensitivities are responding to sensations. There is high variability in individuals’ personal understanding of their own sensory sensitivities and what sensory stimuli they are responding to. Therefore, it is important to know and understand what certain people in the general population do because overtime it can lead to maladaptive behaviors in daily functioning.
Savannah Hancock, Jacqueline Bloom, Charlotte Sally, and Rhianna Wallace
College students in particular have chronically restricted sleep patterns and experience more daytime sleepiness, and physical and mental health issues than their same-aged peers who are not students. Sleep is an emerging area of research and intervention for occupational therapists. The purpose of this study was to identify and investigate how college student’s beliefs about sleep affect their quality of sleep. This study asked: how do beliefs and attitudes about sleep affect sleep quality and participation in valued occupations in college students? Four college students were interviewed regarding their sleep beliefs and attitudes. They also completed a two-week sleep diary to determine their general sleep beliefs and attitudes and daily behavior. The interviews were coded for themes and four emerging themes were identified: a) beliefs about sleep patterns related to temporal structure of sleep, b) the impact of stress on sleep, c) occupational performance in terms of performance in the occupation of sleep and performance in all other occupations (daytime performance), and d) conflicting beliefs about sleep. Sleep diary data revealed that participants’ idealized sleep beliefs are not consistent with actual behavior. From these themes researchers concluded that college students do not have well defined beliefs and attitudes about sleep or consistent, routine sleep schedules, leading to fair sleep quality and performance of daily occupations.
George Washington Brownridge III, Sylvanna Islas, Angelina Miller, and Warren Hoeffler
Bone constantly cycles through a dynamic process of breakdown and remodeling. Osteoblasts are the specialized mesenchymal stem cells that have a major role in bone formation and the remodeling process whereas their counterpart osteoclasts, handle bone resorption. Embryonic stem cells can be partially differentiated into Progenitor cells, and we worked with #18, a candidate for being an osteoprogenitor that has the potential to respond to morphogenic activators. In the case of bone remodeling, TGF-β 2, BMP-2 and an abundance of CA++ have been shown to be potential activators of differentiation into osteoblasts. Eight different trials were conducted with the cells using different combinations of the three morphogenic activators. After inducing the cells with the activators, we performed Immunohistochemistry (IHC) to analyze the expression of osteocalcin, which is the enzyme that binds calcium to mineralize bone. The cells with varying activator combinations showed different physiology with a variance in the cell shape, structure, and spacing. The greatest results were from the combination of TGF-β 2 and BMP-2, which is consistent with #18 operating as an osteoprogenitor. A 3D construct model of #18 seemed to have a similar structure to that of an osteon, possibly indicating the formation of bone. We took slices of the model and performed an IHC staining for Osteocalcin, Prolyl Hydroxylase (5B5), and Collagen I. We saw a strong positive signal for Col I and 5B5, and a slight positive signal for Osteocalcin. This information confirmed that #18 is an osteoprogenitor and is able to assemble bone.
Previous research has demonstrated that natural views and access to plants appear to have significant beneficial effects on individuals (Relf, 1992). Studies of green views out of a classroom window showed significant reductions in students’ mental fatigue (Li & Sullivan, 2016), and studies of indoor plants in hospital settings showed stress reduction and increased healing rates in patients (Ulrich, 1984). Indoor plants in the workplace demonstrated improved employee performance (Kweon, Ulrich, Walker, & Tassinary, 2008). However, there have been few studies examining the impact indoor plants might have in a classroom setting. This study used an experimental design to measure the impact of indoor plants on participants’ stress levels, mental fatigue, and test performance. Forty-eight students and non-students recruited from a small liberal arts college in Marin County were given a timed 12-question math test. The test environment for the experimental group included green, leafy, indoor plants, whereas the test environment for the control group was devoid of plants. The participants’ level of immediate post-test stress and mental fatigue was self-measured using 12 questions from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983) and the Profile of Mood States (Grove & Prapavessis, 1993). Results of the current study indicated that, relative to those in the control group, participants exposed to indoor plants reported similar levels of stress and fatigue, and showed no significant difference in test performance. A correlation was found between participants’ levels of stress, tension, and fatigue. The current study was unique in its design, and further research is needed in a classroom environment to fully demonstrate the benefits of indoor plants on stress, fatigue, and test performance of students.
Michelle K. LeMieux
Staffing secondary schools has become difficult in the past 10 years in conjunction with a changing and challenging economy for Millennials. Secondary school leaders are having problems finding, employing, and retaining content specialists each school year due to the lack of trained teachers to fill positions left by large numbers of retirees. The problem is there is a need for content specialists in secondary schools and only a limited number of new teachers, which is insufficient in replacing retirees, leaving educational leaders scrambling to fill positions each year. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that are deterring Millennials in their first few years of teaching from remaining in their positions as educators and how those differ from veteran teachers who have taught for 10 or more years. A review of the literature revealed that a changing economy, coming into adulthood during a recession, lack of financial incentive, and lack of support are major deterrents for many teachers. This is a qualitative study that uses responses to surveys to gather information to explain the challenges new teachers face and the causes of the current teacher shortage.
Avery Wilson, Mios Buccat, Amanda Grace Irao, Morgan Mousley, and Michael Yra Munchua
Therapeutic Listening® is an intervention increasingly used by occupational therapists despite the lack of supporting evidence in current literature. Therapeutic Listening® is a sound-based treatment developed by Sheila Frick, OTR/L, rooted in sensory integration. The purpose of this continuation study was to analyze the quality of bilateral movement in typically developing children after a Therapeutic Listening® session using a more sensitive, qualitative measure. This study used a randomized control pretest-posttest experimental design to analyze posture, smooth and continuous movement, effort, precision, and arm/leg movements. Specific items were further analyzed after eliminating those with a strong ceiling effect and focusing on items that approached significance in the previous study. Results showed the Quickshift series to have a moderately significant effect on qualitative movements during bilateral tasks by improving smoothness and rhythmicity. Overall, when compared to the white noise group the intervention group showed a greater improvement in bilateral coordination. Limitations of this study include a low statistical power, and a high ceiling effect. However, despite these limitations the Quickshift series shows promise as an intervention to improve bilateral coordination as this study, together with the standardized tests from the previous study show a trending effect of Therapeutic Listening® on bilateral coordination.
Bryant Luong, Ann Malloy, and Shannon Preto
Few empirical studies have been conducted to provide evidence for the effectiveness of Therapeutic Listening - Quickshifts (TL-Q). Anecdotally, TL-Q has produced consistent positive results for therapists and clients as a pediatric intervention. Therefore, it is imperative to research TL-Q’s efficacy, which may lead to its broader implementation. In this study, the researchers examined the effectiveness of TL-Q intervention for children with sensory processing difficulties to improve participation and function in 1) school performance, (2) self-regulation and arousal, (3) activities of daily living (ADLs), (4) social/emotional skills, and (5) sensorimotor skills. Over the course of an 8 week prospective study, the researchers conducted a pre-test, post-test case study. During the intervention period, TL-Q expert therapists adjusted the specific musical track depending on the needs of the specific child. Results showed an overall positive increase in quantitative scores and a qualitative feedback. Most notably, in the areas of social emotional skills and sensorimotor skills. This study provided evidence for the support of TL-Q in the clinical setting and developed an effective protocol for future research.
The Relationship of Anxiety, Depression and Low Self-Esteem on the Tendency to have Compulsive Buying-type Behaviors
“Retail Therapy” is a term commonly used to describe the action taken to relieve or compensate for negative feelings by purchasing things not planned or necessary. This is also considered the first phase of shopping addiction (Sohn et al, 2013), and like other behaviors (e.g., drinking alcohol, eating, gambling) these can be problematic if not done in moderation.
When shopping involves a preoccupation or uncontrollable urge to buy and also leads to significant social and financial problems, it is called Compulsive Buying (CB). This problem behavior is a cycle that maybe initiated by negative feelings, followed by a short-lived euphoria and possible long-term negative consequences. Although not officially recognized as a psychological disorder, CB is associated with impaired functioning (Gallagher et al, 2017).
Studies suggest that certain personality traits and mood disorders are factors common in people with CB. Prior research has linked individuals who met criteria for CB with significantly higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders (Harvanko et al, 2013) and greater levels of depression (Kyrios et al, 2013). This information exposes the possibility that people can behave in ways consistent with compulsive buying from time to time without meeting the diagnosis for a mental illness.
It is reasonable to suggest that if the patterns of behavior have similar origins that differ only slightly, people who demonstrate non-clinical compulsive buying tendencies may also do so to alleviate (or change) negative mood(s). Therefore it is hypothesized that occasional compulsive-buying type behaviors will be more common for individuals with higher levels of depression or anxiety and lower self-esteem.
Anxiety among college students is a common occurrence today. This study has researched how students are dealing with this mental health issue as well as looked into many different variables that were incorporated such as gender differences, treatment options, potential triggers and coping mechanisms.
Katherine Blank, Alison Chandler, Malcolm Isely, Serena Soria, and Yamin Zaw
Individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) may experience challenges in their everyday occupational performance due to cognitive impairments. Cognitive tabletop and occupation-based assessments are used to evaluate cognition in individuals with ABI. There is a need for cognitive occupation-based assessments as they possess ecological validity: a reflection of an individual’s occupational performance in daily life. This study aimed to validate the Medication Box Task assessment in its use as a cognitive occupation-based assessment. The results of the Medication Box Task assessment were compared against the results of a battery of five gold standard tabletop assessments. Pearson correlations showed significant correlations between type II errors of the Tower of London and the extra and missing pills of the Medication Box Task assessment. No other significant correlations were found between scores of the Medication Box Task assessment and the battery of cognitive tabletop assessments. More importantly, it was discovered that six out of seven participants, who indicated that they managed their own medication, made errors on the Medication Box Task assessment. Based on the results, no conclusion can be made about the Medication Box Task assessment as a valid cognitive occupation-based assessment.
Stereotypical beliefs people have of personality traits that are expected from children in relation to their birth order has become a popular area of study. Parents can be consciously or unconsciously swayed to form impressions of their children based on birth order personality attributes formed by society and family. How parents act towards their children can impact a child’s cognitive and behavioral development (Eckstein & Kaufman, 2012). Using Adler’s psychological perspective theory, the present study hypothesized that there is a positive correlation between people’s perception of birth order traits and self-reported personality. Participants were 50 adults (84% female) 18 to 62 years old and primarily recruited on a university campus. Participants completed two online surveys, both shortened forms of Big 5 personality dimensions. The Mini-IPIP was used to gather participant’s self-reported personality traits. The TIPI was used to evaluate which traits the participants expect to see from a person that has the same birth order as them. Results demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between perceptions of birth order traits and self-reported personality. This is important because it suggest that Adler’s psychological perspective theory could be a more reliable measure to use compared to Sulloway’s evolutionary theory (Eckstein et al., 2010). Findings also add validity to Adler’s claim that the type of role a child adopts and the development of characteristics are a result of its interactions with family and society. Limitations include a small sample size and inaccurate hypothesized birth order traits. This study demonstrates that it is crucial for researchers to keep in mind that the family structure is the system from which specific birth order personality traits can develop and that parents should be aware of forming impressions of their children based on stereotypical societal beliefs.
What is the relationship between food insecurity and college students aged 18-22 and its effects on academic performance and how can proper nutrition be promoted?
Karla Ramos, John Magbanua, Daniella Flores, Janelle de Dios, Karla Bugtong, and Shannon Almonia
Food insecurity is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods. It can also be defined as the limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. Previous research has observed that food insecurity can disrupt optimal development throughout the life cycle. A growing body of literature has documented the effects of food insecurity on cognitive, academic, and psychosocial development among college students. These studies consistently observed that food insecurity is associated with lower academic performance, poor health, and decreased psychosocial function. Among college students, financial hardship can translate into budget demands, such as tuition, textbooks, housing, utilities, and healthcare. These budget demands compete with money that can be used to purchase food. Over the past 30 years, the price of higher education has steadily outpaced inflation, the cost of living, and medical expenses. Food insecurity, as a potential consequence of the increasing cost of higher education, can be considered a major student health priority. College students face life-changing milestones during their transition to adulthood that may have long-lasting effects. Food insecurity during these years can potentially affect college students' cognitive, academic, and psychosocial development. Studies addressing food insecurity among college students suggest a higher prevalence of food insecurity compared with the general population. A previous study conducted in Hawai'i found that 45% of students were food insecure or at risk of food insecurity. The purpose of the current study was to further analyze the prevalence of food insecurity and identifying its correlates among students
Kimberly Kelsey, Crystal Hunter, Brianna Tan, Sara Shea, Heather Holland, Sasha Riley, Mary Uy, Tenzin Tsomo, Fasha Ruys-solorzano, and Dolma Tso
According to the Annals of Family Medicine, the amount of babies born via cesarean section has increased from 4.5% in 1965 to 26.1% in 2002 and nearly 40% of all cesarean sections are repeats. After an extensive literature review, results showed that patients need to be educated about the risks and benefits of vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery. It was also found that there needs to be policy changes to decrease the amount of cesarean sections done and increase the labor and delivery support without using interventions. Further study should be focused on morbidity and mortality very low birth weight neonates for women with previous cesarean sections that accounts for unplanned VBAC deliveries.
A Literature Review of Vertical Violence Between Staff Medical Surgical Nurses and Nursing Students During Clinical Rotations
Lisa N. Cunningham
Vertical violence is defined as any act of violence including yelling, snide comments, withholding information, ignoring, and humiliating behaviors occurring between two or more persons on different levels of a hierarchical system that prohibits professional performance and satisfaction within the workplace (Cantey, 2013). Vertical violence can occur in any unit of the hospital but is mainly felt and witnessed by student nurses and their clinical instructors in the medical surgical units. According to research done by Fenush and Hupcey (2008), the nursing shortage is most severe in the medical surgical units. Their research found that the two greatest factors in whether a new graduate will choose a specific unit is the experience they had and how the unit staff treat and respond to nursing students. Vertical violence has been an ongoing problem in the nursing profession and is now affecting hospital units where newly graduated nurses are needed the most. There is a gap of knowledge of why staff nurses are holding biases against the students’, and how communication and teamwork between the two can be improved. This literature review will attempt to bridge the gap by examining the current and past literature on vertical violence in hope of uncovering information that can be used for future research and hospital protocols. The purpose of this literature review is to explore the attitudes and biases of staff nurses when working with students’, to see how staff and student relationships have improved, and if students’ clinical experience on a particular unit will determine their career choice post graduation.
Eugene Cheung, Janice S. Li, Diana Lopez, and Angela Talamantez
This study explored the effectiveness of the Bridge/Adapt program for generalizing increased cognition to functional skills. Three participants, identified as having significant cognitive impairments as measured by the Cognistat assessment, participated in the Bridge/Adapt program, an eight-week program that includes both remedial and compensatory components. The remedial component used was a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program called Parrot Software. Past studies have proven computer-based cognitive rehabilitation to be effective in increasing overall cognition. The Bridge/Adapt module is the compensatory component that utilized a variety of strategies and everyday tasks to facilitate the generalization of improved cognition to functional performance. A homework component was also implemented for participants to incorporate the strategies learned in the Bridge/Adapt program to their own meaningful occupations. This study utilized a pretest posttest design using the medication box assessment to measure functional performance. Results of the medication box assessment indicated that one of the three participants demonstrated generalization of skills from improved cognition to functional performance. Future research should include re-evaluating the Bridge/Adapt modules and the medication box assessment. Recommendations to improve future implementation are provided to increase likelihood of generalization.