Discrimination is the act of negatively behaving towards a person or group of people due to the social group these individuals belong to. Although, as a society we like to believe that discrimination does not occur as often as it does, it can take many forms that we can be oblivious to. As a healthcare provider, one is held to a higher standard that many often forget are still human susceptible to the same vices. Discrimination in healthcare is a topic that many are not aware of the prevalence in our healthcare system. It might seem that the societal perceptions of different ethnic groups would not affect the healthcare sector but it does (Yearby, 2010).
The current study examined if unconscious biases had an affect on whether or not certain patients receive full scope treatment. The study proposed that racial discrimination affects the kind of treatment patients receive which leads to alarming health disparities between majority and minority group members. The study aimed to reveal the psychological nature of discrimination and how covert discrimination is the main culprit behind the differences in medical treatments received from healthcare providers. Empathy and personality scales were used to measure whether or not covert discrimination was present in those trying to enter and already working the healthcare field.
Participants were anonymously surveyed and provided their self-identified demographics, were given the student version of Jefferson Empathy Scale, randomly assigned one out of three vignettes about a patient, were asked further questions on how likely the participant would be to treat the patient and the speed in which they would administer pain medication if at all. Then, the participants were asked to rate the patient’s personality through a condensed version of the Big Five Inventory. Lastly, the participants were dismissed with a thank you for participation letter.
A diverse sample of students in healthcare related majors and at a small private liberal arts school and Bay Area healthcare professionals were recruited through social media, email, and an in class presentation for the study. The study was hosted online through SurveyMonkey.com and was open for 60 days.
It was hypothesized that the higher the empathy levels of the healthcare provider, the higher level of care they would administer to a patient. It was also hypothesized that due to subconscious biases that are perpetuated by society, African Americans are more likely to be given less treatment as opposed to Caucasian and Non-Stated race patients or thought to be exaggerating their medical experiences (level of pain) by the healthcare providers (healthcare related majoring students and professionals).
The findings of this study are intended to broaden the awareness of racial discrimination in healthcare and showcase how negative stereotypes of certain ethnic groups affect every aspect of life, including receiving of health care.
Many believe the primary role in life is to settle down and have children. The present study focuses on understanding what can influence a person’s choice to have children. With a wide variety of childhood experiences that exist, as well as the influences of an optimism/pessimism attitude about life, this study will focus on how these characteristics can combine to influence one’s decision to have children.
According to McDonnell (2012), many of those who experienced an unstable or undesirable childhood grow up wanting no children as a way to not repeat the cycle. Meanwhile, some who experienced adversity in childhood seek parenthood as a way to do the opposite of what they experienced, and effort to provide better for their children. What differentiates these responses may have to do with general attitude about the world.
Individuals vary on their optimism-pessimism level. Evidence has been found that show optimism and pessimism to exist on a singular, bi-polar spectrum (Marshall, Wortman, Kusulas, Hervig, & Vickers, 1992); high optimism equates to a low level of pessimism and vice versa.
Studies have also shown that childhood adversities can play a large role when it comes to adulthood dispositional optimism (Korkeila et al, 2004). It is clear, then that childhood experiences, optimism-pessimism, and desire to have children are all somehow interconnected; these relationships suggests the following hypotheses: 1) Adults who had little or no adversity in childhood will desire to have children, independent of their levels of optimism/pessimism; and 2) Adults who did experience childhood adversity only will desire to have children if they are also high in levels of general optimism.
Corinna Louise Venturina Villar
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, occurs when there is long-term force of force of blood against one’s artery walls. When uncontrolled, hypertension may increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. More than 1 in 3 adults live with 1 or more types of cardiovascular disease in the United States alone- with stroke being the fifth leading cause of death. The purpose of my study is to evaluate the environmental influence on hypertension by comparing various factors in cities with high prevalence rates of heart disease to those with lower rates of heart disease. Conducting an environmental scan will serve as the basis of my research, as it will help me assess various neighborhoods based on a set criteria (e.g., accessibility to healthy food places, park access, and neighborhood walkability) that identify potential risk factors for hypertension within each neighborhood. The parks and neighborhoods to be assessed will be determined through a hot spot analysis, which will provide a visual on significant clusters of high and low values of hypertension.
Margaret Anne DeMayo
Binge drinking is a common problem found among college students. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in six U.S. adults binge drink about four times a month, consuming about eight drinks per binge." Over time, binge drinking in college can cause negative factors for students such as, poor academics and health problems.
The purpose of my study is to evaluate how stress factors such as environment and peer relationships affect drinking habits in male and female college students. Students experience stress factors such as environment (e.g. housing), peer relationships (e.g. peer pressure, relationships), school (e.g. grade level), and appearance (e.g. body image).
Past research has indicated that immigrant college students experience acculturative shock and stress, arising from acculturative adjusting (Barlow, 2002; Cohen & Wills, 1985; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). This study explored the potential relationships between acculturative stress, perceived social support, and self-concealment amongst immigrant college students. Further, the study examined whether social support is related to lower acculturative stress for students. It was hypothesized that strong social support would be negatively related to acculturative stress, and that self-concealment would be positively related to acculturative stress.
Results indicate that there was a significant positive relationship between self-concealment and acculturative stress in this sample, indicating that participants who utilized self-concealment also experienced higher levels of acculturative stress. On the other hand, no relationship was found between perceived social support and acculturative stress. Findings indicate that immigrant students with a high level of self-concealment also experience difficulty acculturating to the culture in which they currently live. This has implications for immigration students’ ability to engage fully in school and for educational policy acculturative stress.
Parent culturally incompatibility was evaluated for its possible negative impact on a bicultural offspring’s cultural identity development. The 43 self-identified bicultural participants, aged from 18 to 67 years, provided family cultural histories, and completed the Parental Cultural Conflict Scale (PCCS) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). The hypothesized relationship between high PCCS levels and low MEIM levels was not supported by the data; however, the range of responses on the PCCS was very limited with a complete absence of any very low or very high conflict scores. It was concluded that parents’ cultural incompatibility does not have the level of negative impact on their offspring’s cultural identity development as originally anticipated, but due to the limited range of PCCS values, the hypothesis cannot be completely rejected. Results also demonstrated that there was also no significant difference found in the mean MEIM scores for the bicultural study sample and published norms for various monocultural groups, suggesting that bicultural children may find their path to self-identification that is neither enhanced nor impaired by having two parents of different cultures.
It was suggested that individuals who experience a stressful childhood may have learned from these experiences and developed a greater ability to cope with stress as adults; this ability is independent of general self-esteem. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Childhood Traumatic Events Scale, the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale and a Stressful Events Questionnaire were completed by 64 participants. Comparing those who had traumatic childhood experiences with those who had not, the results showed no significant group differences for the Coping Scores. Those with traumatic childhoods had significantly lower self-esteem, and had experienced higher (but not significantly different) levels of stress during past week and also in general during past three months. It was concluded that childhood traumatic experiences have little or no observable influence on how adults cope with or respond to stressful events.
The development of an individual’s beliefs about God is significantly influenced by teachings of parents. However, not all children have the exact same beliefs as their parents. The present study will examine what may be the characteristics of individual who have similar or differing beliefs than those to which they were exposed as a child.
Although not identical to a “belief in God”, much of the past research evaluating belief systems has focused primarily of “religiosity”. Caldwell-Harris (2012) noted that openness to experience was the personality characteristic that differed most between the religious and non-religious respondents. Even controlling for education, gender, marriage, and child rearing openness remained, the strongest predictor of both lower religious belief and membership. In a study by Luke and Kim (2011) compared religious and views on strength of beliefs and found that even people who are not religious can hold very strong views and stick to these opinions avidly.
While several have studied relationship of personality and relition, few have evaluated the origins of those ideas, i.e., how beliefs may have changed since childhood. Arnett, Jensen (2002) studied religious socialization and found that beliefs in emerging adulthood show an increase in a skeptical view of religious institutions.
The adult’s beliefs about God, therefore, would seem to be a combination of the set of ideas taught by the parent and the personality characteristic of the adult child which have allowed the individual to retain or migrate away from those teaching. It is hypothesized that adults who score high in Openness are more likely to have a different set of beliefs than those which where taught to them as a child.
Methodology includes online data collection of demographics, measures parents and children’s beliefs, and the Big Five personality inventory. Results will be available in April 2017.
Twice exceptionality, or 2e, is the recently-coined term for the intersection of learning disabilities (LDs) and giftedness in an individual. Typically, these learning disabilities encompass ADHD, ASD, and/or specific learning disorders such as dyslexia. Because giftedness may obscure or compensate for a student’s academic struggles, and because institutional fixation on disability may overshadow intelligence, twice exceptionality is often missed by teachers and other authority figures in a child’s life. Given the ongoing difficulties of screening for twice exceptionality, it is likely that many 2e students have gone unidentified throughout most of their academic careers, without receiving the accommodations that would most benefit their studies. Furthermore, 2e adults whose schooling predated widespread awareness of twice exceptionality are more likely to have been diagnosed later in life.
The twin prongs of identification and intervention for 2e youth make up the bulk of studies in the field. Today’s 2e youth are better-identified, better-studied, and better-supported than any previous generation, but 2e adults remain an understudied population. In addition to the difficulties and contradictions inherent in twice exceptionality, late identification and lack of support are likely to have negatively impacted twice exceptional adults, both in and out of the classroom.
The present study will examine the ability of 2e adults to effectively cope with stressors in their lives, as well as their current level of life satisfaction. Approximately fifty or more 2e adults will be recruited through email and social media, and via the disability department of a small liberal arts university. Participants will be asked about their diagnostic histories and their experiences with higher education, and will then complete the Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S., 1985) and Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (Chesney, M.A., Neilands, T.B., Chambers, D.B., Taylor, J.M., & Folkman, S., 2006). Data will be collected and analyzed in March and April 2017.
We hypothesize that there will be a relationship between the age of identification as twice exceptional and adult quality of life, operationalized by Satisfaction with Life and Coping Self-Efficacy. Additionally, we will explore the relationships between specific diagnoses and these variables, as well as factors of race and gender. This study will provide information on an underserved and understudied group, and we hope it will provide a deeper understanding of the needs and strengths of this population.
George Washington Brownridge III, Sylvanna Islas, Angelina Miller, and Warren Hoeffler
Bone constantly cycles through a dynamic process of breakdown and remodeling. Osteoblasts are the specialized mesenchymal stem cells that have a major role in bone formation and the remodeling process whereas their counterpart osteoclasts, handle bone resorption. Embryonic stem cells can be partially differentiated into Progenitor cells, and we worked with #18, a candidate for being an osteoprogenitor that has the potential to respond to morphogenic activators. In the case of bone remodeling, TGF-β 2, BMP-2 and an abundance of CA++ have been shown to be potential activators of differentiation into osteoblasts. Eight different trials were conducted with the cells using different combinations of the three morphogenic activators. After inducing the cells with the activators, we performed Immunohistochemistry (IHC) to analyze the expression of osteocalcin, which is the enzyme that binds calcium to mineralize bone. The cells with varying activator combinations showed different physiology with a variance in the cell shape, structure, and spacing. The greatest results were from the combination of TGF-β 2 and BMP-2, which is consistent with #18 operating as an osteoprogenitor. A 3D construct model of #18 seemed to have a similar structure to that of an osteon, possibly indicating the formation of bone. We took slices of the model and performed an IHC staining for Osteocalcin, Prolyl Hydroxylase (5B5), and Collagen I. We saw a strong positive signal for Col I and 5B5, and a slight positive signal for Osteocalcin. This information confirmed that #18 is an osteoprogenitor and is able to assemble bone.
Previous research has demonstrated that natural views and access to plants appear to have significant beneficial effects on individuals (Relf, 1992). Studies of green views out of a classroom window showed significant reductions in students’ mental fatigue (Li & Sullivan, 2016), and studies of indoor plants in hospital settings showed stress reduction and increased healing rates in patients (Ulrich, 1984). Indoor plants in the workplace demonstrated improved employee performance (Kweon, Ulrich, Walker, & Tassinary, 2008). However, there have been few studies examining the impact indoor plants might have in a classroom setting. This study used an experimental design to measure the impact of indoor plants on participants’ stress levels, mental fatigue, and test performance. Forty-eight students and non-students recruited from a small liberal arts college in Marin County were given a timed 12-question math test. The test environment for the experimental group included green, leafy, indoor plants, whereas the test environment for the control group was devoid of plants. The participants’ level of immediate post-test stress and mental fatigue was self-measured using 12 questions from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983) and the Profile of Mood States (Grove & Prapavessis, 1993). Results of the current study indicated that, relative to those in the control group, participants exposed to indoor plants reported similar levels of stress and fatigue, and showed no significant difference in test performance. A correlation was found between participants’ levels of stress, tension, and fatigue. The current study was unique in its design, and further research is needed in a classroom environment to fully demonstrate the benefits of indoor plants on stress, fatigue, and test performance of students.
Michelle K. LeMieux
Staffing secondary schools has become difficult in the past 10 years in conjunction with a changing and challenging economy for Millennials. Secondary school leaders are having problems finding, employing, and retaining content specialists each school year due to the lack of trained teachers to fill positions left by large numbers of retirees. The problem is there is a need for content specialists in secondary schools and only a limited number of new teachers, which is insufficient in replacing retirees, leaving educational leaders scrambling to fill positions each year. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that are deterring Millennials in their first few years of teaching from remaining in their positions as educators and how those differ from veteran teachers who have taught for 10 or more years. A review of the literature revealed that a changing economy, coming into adulthood during a recession, lack of financial incentive, and lack of support are major deterrents for many teachers. This is a qualitative study that uses responses to surveys to gather information to explain the challenges new teachers face and the causes of the current teacher shortage.
The Relationship of Anxiety, Depression and Low Self-Esteem on the Tendency to have Compulsive Buying-type Behaviors
“Retail Therapy” is a term commonly used to describe the action taken to relieve or compensate for negative feelings by purchasing things not planned or necessary. This is also considered the first phase of shopping addiction (Sohn et al, 2013), and like other behaviors (e.g., drinking alcohol, eating, gambling) these can be problematic if not done in moderation.
When shopping involves a preoccupation or uncontrollable urge to buy and also leads to significant social and financial problems, it is called Compulsive Buying (CB). This problem behavior is a cycle that maybe initiated by negative feelings, followed by a short-lived euphoria and possible long-term negative consequences. Although not officially recognized as a psychological disorder, CB is associated with impaired functioning (Gallagher et al, 2017).
Studies suggest that certain personality traits and mood disorders are factors common in people with CB. Prior research has linked individuals who met criteria for CB with significantly higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders (Harvanko et al, 2013) and greater levels of depression (Kyrios et al, 2013). This information exposes the possibility that people can behave in ways consistent with compulsive buying from time to time without meeting the diagnosis for a mental illness.
It is reasonable to suggest that if the patterns of behavior have similar origins that differ only slightly, people who demonstrate non-clinical compulsive buying tendencies may also do so to alleviate (or change) negative mood(s). Therefore it is hypothesized that occasional compulsive-buying type behaviors will be more common for individuals with higher levels of depression or anxiety and lower self-esteem.
Anxiety among college students is a common occurrence today. This study has researched how students are dealing with this mental health issue as well as looked into many different variables that were incorporated such as gender differences, treatment options, potential triggers and coping mechanisms.
Stereotypical beliefs people have of personality traits that are expected from children in relation to their birth order has become a popular area of study. Parents can be consciously or unconsciously swayed to form impressions of their children based on birth order personality attributes formed by society and family. How parents act towards their children can impact a child’s cognitive and behavioral development (Eckstein & Kaufman, 2012). Using Adler’s psychological perspective theory, the present study hypothesized that there is a positive correlation between people’s perception of birth order traits and self-reported personality. Participants were 50 adults (84% female) 18 to 62 years old and primarily recruited on a university campus. Participants completed two online surveys, both shortened forms of Big 5 personality dimensions. The Mini-IPIP was used to gather participant’s self-reported personality traits. The TIPI was used to evaluate which traits the participants expect to see from a person that has the same birth order as them. Results demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between perceptions of birth order traits and self-reported personality. This is important because it suggest that Adler’s psychological perspective theory could be a more reliable measure to use compared to Sulloway’s evolutionary theory (Eckstein et al., 2010). Findings also add validity to Adler’s claim that the type of role a child adopts and the development of characteristics are a result of its interactions with family and society. Limitations include a small sample size and inaccurate hypothesized birth order traits. This study demonstrates that it is crucial for researchers to keep in mind that the family structure is the system from which specific birth order personality traits can develop and that parents should be aware of forming impressions of their children based on stereotypical societal beliefs.
Brooke Czuleger, Emily Garnica, Jessica Phung, and Maciej Rzepka
In the past decade, the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disabilities (ID), has increased. Sensory processing is an area of need for individuals with ASD and ID that requires specialized interventions. In best practices, these services are delivered by an interdisciplinary team, often consisting of an occupational therapist, speech language pathologist, behaviorist and special education teacher. Yet, to date there has been limited research examining interdisciplinary collaboration with the many professionals on the team. The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the interdisciplinary team practices at a special education center in Northern California. This research employed interview methods and qualitative analysis. Results informed a conceptual practice model for collaboration as a highly intentional practice. The model depicts sensory needs of individual students and thusly sensorimotor programming for the classroom as a priority for the interdisciplinary team. Final themes from the analysis as essential to collaboration were: taking action, communicating, addressing barriers, reinforcing team values and understanding interdisciplinary roles. Implications for practice include advocating for the scope of OT, active engagement in the collaborative process at the IEP level, taking leadership roles, creating opportunities for collaboration, engagement in dialogue with administration and formal inservice training.
Kimberly Kelsey, Crystal Hunter, Brianna Tan, Sara Shea, Heather Holland, Sasha Riley, Mary Uy, Tenzin Tsomo, Fasha Ruys-solorzano, and Dolma Tso
According to the Annals of Family Medicine, the amount of babies born via cesarean section has increased from 4.5% in 1965 to 26.1% in 2002 and nearly 40% of all cesarean sections are repeats. After an extensive literature review, results showed that patients need to be educated about the risks and benefits of vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery. It was also found that there needs to be policy changes to decrease the amount of cesarean sections done and increase the labor and delivery support without using interventions. Further study should be focused on morbidity and mortality very low birth weight neonates for women with previous cesarean sections that accounts for unplanned VBAC deliveries.
Kayla Comer, Tiffany Huang, Kelly Schmidt, and Matthew Tong
As the population and longevity of older adults’ increases, the prevalence of falls is becoming an ever-growing issue. One in three adults aged 65 years and older experience a fall each year. Falls in older adults may lead to sedentary behavior, decreased independence, and lower quality of life. Evidence has shown that traditional exercise programs emphasizing strength and balance exercises can decrease the fall risk in older adults, but may be difficult to sustain over time. Emerging evidence suggests that exercises that are integrated into daily life may have a more lasting effect in reducing fall risk in older adults. This study explored the effectiveness of an integrated exercise program, the modified-LiFE program, in decreasing fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. Results supported integrative exercise programs may decrease fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with previous history of falls. Therefore, integrating exercises into daily life offers occupational therapists an effective occupation-based intervention that promotes safety, independence, and quality of life for older adults.
Samantha L. Alexander, Noelani M. Brisbane, Rebecca M. Schira, and Kaitlyn M. Williams
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited Intellectual Developmental Disorder and a genetic model for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Those living with FXS face emotional, social, intellectual, and physical challenges that impact engagement in occupations, yet to date, there has been limited qualitative research examining family occupations in FXS. In this research, twelve interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for common themes anchored in the Person, Environment, Occupation (PEO) model. Results indicated that while children with FXS exhibit strengths, there are certain occupations that families find difficult to engage in. A new model was created for consideration of family occupations and FXS. This model depicts family occupations as a complex and ever changing, dynamic interaction between the child and family engaging in varying environments, and activities. This model can further inform clinical reasoning when designing a comprehensive child and family-centered approach supporting participation in occupations.
Haley Caruthers, Samantha Talavera, Stephanie Vera, and Jackeline Ulloa
Older adults (OAs) over the age of 65 are the fastest growing age group in the United States. They are also the fastest growing population of Internet users as they use the Internet to access health information related to optimizing independence, productivity, and social engagement. Although there is an abundant amount of information available that is devoted to healthy aging, the validity of the information can be questionable and the information may be confusing.
Dominican University of California’s (DUC) Healthy Aging website contains relevant and evidence-based research, including activities and local community based programs that promote healthy aging. To expand the website, a literature-based needs assessment was conducted, which indicated, the value of health promotion materials that foster of emotional and physical wellness and encourage a safe and active lifestyle in and outside of the home. Specifically, new topics such as “Living Safely Inside and Outside of Home,” “Local Events,” “Emotional Wellness,” “At Your Fingertips,” “Apps You Can Use,” and “ Position, Movement, & Ergonomics” have been added to enhance the DUC Healthy Aging website. The DUC Healthy Aging website is very beneficial to both OAs and health profession majors because it is highly accessible and provides resources and information regarding health promotion and prevention behaviors to live a productive lifestyle.
Implementing Multifactorial Education Modules with Older Adults: Individualized and Interactive Fall Prevention Education
Salvador Chavez, Jocelle Flores, and Rachelle Yambao
Falls are a significant concern for community-dwelling older adults (OAs), with one in four OAs reporting a fall every year. Occupational therapy students collaborated with first responders of the Novato Fire District to identify gaps in fall prevention community outreach programs and found that many interventions lack an interactive or individualized approach. Based on the gap analysis and current literature, seven education modules were developed to address key risk factors including home modifications, polypharmacy, fear of falling, and balance exercises. Thirty community-dwelling OAs participated in the education modules and were implemented at two senior community sites in Marin County. Participants were screened via Functional Reach Test (FRT) and completed a survey to determine their personal risk factors for falling, which guided their personalized fall prevention education. Of the participants, 90% rated their experience with the education modules as “very good” or “excellent,” and a majority rated the balance exercises as most important. The interactive 1:1 education modules are an effective and innovative method for fall prevention education and highlight the importance of client-centered treatment.
Carrie Payne and Lauren Kufer
This critically appraised topic explores the functional task performance of adults with low vision utilizing tactile vision substitution systems, specifically tongue display units (TDUs). TDUs are a novel assistive device that functions to provide artificial vision to those with low vision. TDUs pixelate images captured on a camera the person wears and the images are translated via electronic stimulation on the tongue to paint a picture. Two studies that measured functional task performance utilizing a TDU with adults with low vision were explored. Examples of functional tasks measured include word recognition, object recognition, and orientation and mobility tasks. The studies concluded that with skilled training, the TDU may significantly improve functional task performance in tasks previously impossible for the participants. Use of technology such as a TDU can improve functional task performance to enhance overall quality of life for adults with low vision of light perception or less. The results indicate the need for skilled training by professionals such as occupational therapists to best utilize a TDU.
Michelle Chan, Kelsie Colombini, Kristen M. Henderson, and Courtney Malachowski
In recent years, the number of inpatient cardiovascular surgeries has significantly increased in hospitals around America. Occupational therapists in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Mills-Peninsula Medical Center (Burlingame, California) currently lack a standard protocol for addressing physical, cognitive, and psychosocial factors in patients post cardiac surgery. Furthermore, interventions are frequently guided by professional experience and clinical reasoning instead of current evidence. The American Occupational Therapy Association’s Centennial Vision encourages occupational therapists to pursue science-driven practices and provide evidence-based interventions. In response to this vision, an extensive review of current literature was conducted and applied to develop an evidence-based clinical pathway for the occupational therapists at Mills-Peninsula Medical Center. The proposed clinical pathway includes intervention guidelines for physical recovery, early detection of cognitive impairment, and psychosocial health for patients post cardiac surgery recovering in the ICU. The clinical pathway would establish a standard of care and facilitate patients’ return to their highest level of function during post-cardiac surgery rehabilitation.
Michelle Beckwith, Brina Nguyen, Jennifer Sik, Kenneth Yu, and Laura Greiss Hess
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual and developmental disability, and a known genetic cause of autism. Individuals with FXS present with deficits in cognition, social skills, behavior, language and sensory processing skills; all of which are commonly assessed through standardized and norm-referenced assessments. However, these outcome measures are sometimes not sensitive to contextually based changes in daily life. Further, there is limited research employing qualitative methods in the FXS literature. The purpose of this research was to examine family perspectives collected via semi-structured interviews as part of a randomized controlled medication trial of sertraline (Zoloft®) on children two to six years old diagnosed with FXS. The constant comparison method was used to analyze differences in family expressions of their child’s improvements over the course of the 6-month clinical trial. Twelve interviews were analyzed, six-treatment, six-placebo, and all coding was done blind to group assignment. Results indicated greater improvements in the treatment group when compared to the placebo group in: anxiety, receptive / expressive communication, maladaptive behaviors and some sensory issues. These preliminary findings warrant a need for further research with a larger sample.