A Literature Review of Vertical Violence Between Staff Medical Surgical Nurses and Nursing Students During Clinical Rotations
Lisa N. Cunningham
Vertical violence is defined as any act of violence including yelling, snide comments, withholding information, ignoring, and humiliating behaviors occurring between two or more persons on different levels of a hierarchical system that prohibits professional performance and satisfaction within the workplace (Cantey, 2013). Vertical violence can occur in any unit of the hospital but is mainly felt and witnessed by student nurses and their clinical instructors in the medical surgical units. According to research done by Fenush and Hupcey (2008), the nursing shortage is most severe in the medical surgical units. Their research found that the two greatest factors in whether a new graduate will choose a specific unit is the experience they had and how the unit staff treat and respond to nursing students. Vertical violence has been an ongoing problem in the nursing profession and is now affecting hospital units where newly graduated nurses are needed the most. There is a gap of knowledge of why staff nurses are holding biases against the students’, and how communication and teamwork between the two can be improved. This literature review will attempt to bridge the gap by examining the current and past literature on vertical violence in hope of uncovering information that can be used for future research and hospital protocols. The purpose of this literature review is to explore the attitudes and biases of staff nurses when working with students’, to see how staff and student relationships have improved, and if students’ clinical experience on a particular unit will determine their career choice post graduation.
As defined by the encyclopedia, nosocomial infections are infections whose development is favored by a hospital environment, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff. There has been more of a prevalence of hospital-acquired infections that are linked directly to medical personnel – especially nurses. Nurses have the most contact with patients and are potentially putting patients at highest risk for nosocomial infections. Even though nurses are following isolation precautions and standard hand washing in between patients; there are still a few things on nurses that could be harmful to their patients including stethoscopes, uniforms, and cell phones. I will be looking at research studies that show how harmful these personal items on nurses can be for patients, and what protocols are implemented in hospitals to keep patients safe from acquiring any nosocomial infections.