Socio-economic and Educational Reforms in Ethiopia (1942-1974): Correspondence and Contradiction


Socio-economic and Educational Reforms in Ethiopia (1942-1974): Correspondence and Contradiction





Using the theory of correspondence and contradiction, the author analyzes the interaction between socioeconomic and educational changes in Ethiopia from 1942 to 1974. An introductory section sets forth the principles of correspondence and contradiction, which refer to how the means of economic production determine conditions in the noneconomic "superstructure" of society and how the superstructure in turn acts on the means of production, creating contradictions between the two. Section 2 traces Ethiopia's major socioeconomic changes from 1941 to 1974, including the incorporation of the economy into the world market economy, economic stagnation, the emergence of foreign-dominated commercial farms and industries, and the deterioration of rural and urban living standards. The corresponding educational changes from 1942 to 1974 are discussed in section 3, which describes the succession of British- and American-inspired educational reforms and the mounting problems of unequal participation in education, maldistribution of qualified teachers, low education budgets, high dropout and failure rates, high unemployment among school graduates, and student antigovernment militancy. The concluding section reviews the contradictions between the economic and educational systems that contributed to the 1974 overthrow if the government. It also points out potential future contradictions.

Publication Date



Unesco, International Institute for Educational Planning


Paris, France


African Studies | Economics